Ấn Độ có nên cấm tiền mật mã?
không rút kinh nghiệm từ việc cấm ngoại tệ thời Giấy phép Raj (chế độ cấp phép liên quan đến hạn ngạch, thuế quan và điều tiết hoạt động kinh tế) những năm 1970s 80s hay sao...
Should India ban crypto in a return to foreign currency regulations of the past or embrace cryptocurrency (tiền mật mã)? Shruti Rajagopalan has an excellent column reminding us of India’s old system of currency control under the License Raj.
If India proceeds with a rumored ban on cryptocurrency, it wouldn’t be the country’s first attempt to impose currency controls. This time, however, a ban is even less likely to succeed — and the consequences for India’s economy could be more dire. The country shouldn’t make the same mistake twice.
In the 1970s and 80s, at the height of what was known as the License Raj, Indians could only hold foreign currency for a specific purpose and with a permit from the central bank. If a businessman bought foreign exchange to spend over two days in Paris and one in Frankfurt, and instead spent two days in Germany, the Reserve Bank of India would demand to know why he’d deviated from the currency permit. Violators were routinely threatened with fines and jail time of up to seven years.
Imports required additional permits. Infosys Ltd. founder Narayana Murthy recalls spending about $25,000 (including bribes) to make 50 trips to Delhi over three years, just to get permission to import a $150,000 computer. Plus, since any foreign exchange that the company earned notionally belonged to the government, the RBI would release only half of Infosys’s earnings for the firm to spend on business expenses abroad.
Naturally a black market, with all its unsavory (nhạt nhẽo, vô vị, không ngon; ô nhục, nhơ nhuốc) elements, emerged for foreign currency. The government doubled down, subjecting those dealing in illicit foreign exchange (trao đổi ngoại tệ bất hợp pháp) to preventative detention, usually reserved for terrorists (khủng bố). Businessmen selling Nike shoes and Sony stereos were arrested as smugglers (buôn lậu).
The system impoverished (làm nghèo khổ, kiệt quệ) Indians and made it impossible for Indian firms to compete globally. There’s a reason the country’s world-class IT sector took off only after a balance of payments crisis forced India to open up its economy in 1991.
…While details of the possible crypto ban remain unclear, a draft bill from 2019 bears eerie resemblance to the 1970s controls. It would criminalize the possession, mining, trading or transferring of cryptocurrency assets. Offenders could face up to ten years in jail as well as fines. Such a blanket prohibition would be foolish on multiple levels…