Tiềm lực tài chính của Taliban cỡ nào?
1,6 tỉ USD mỗi năm nhé...
Afghanistan accounted for approximately 84% of global opium (thuốc phiện) production over the five years ending in 2020, according to the United Nation’s World Drug Report 2020.
Much of those illicit (bất hợp pháp) drug profits (lợi nhuận) go to the Taliban, which manage opium in areas under their control. The group imposes a 10% tax on every link in the drug production chain, according to a 2008 report from the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, an independent research organization in Kabul. That includes the Afghan farmers who cultivate poppy (cây anh túc), the main ingredient (thành phần) in opium, the labs that convert it into a drug and the traders who move the final product out of country.
2. Mining – $400 million to $464 million
3. Extortion and taxes – $160 million
Like a government, the Taliban tax people and industries in the growing swath of Afghanistan under their control. They even issue official receipts of tax payment.
“Taxed” industries include mining operations (khai thác mỏ), media (truyền thông), telecommunications (viễn thông) and development projects funded by international aid. Drivers are also charged for using highways in Taliban-controlled regions, and shopkeepers pay the Taliban for the right to do business.
The group also imposes a traditional Islamic form of taxation called “ushr” – which is a 10% tax on a farmer’s harvest – and “zakat,” a 2.5% wealth tax.
According to Mullah Yaqoob, tax revenues – which may also be considered extortion – bring in around $160 million annually.
Since some of those taxed are poppy growers, there could be some financial overlap between tax revenue and drug revenue.
4. Charitable donations – $240 million
5. Exports – $240 million
6. Real estate – $80 million