Journey in Life: word

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Showing posts with label word. Show all posts
Showing posts with label word. Show all posts

Saturday, January 16, 2021

"The small hours" nghĩa là gì?

Em làm gì mà dậy sớm thế?? Photo by Sage Friedman on Unsplash

"The small hours" -> nghĩa là lúc sáng sớm, thời điểm bắt đầu ngày mới, từ 12h đêm đến khi mặt trời mọc.

Ví dụ
According to social media pages, another 3,000 people are to meet at San Pedro Sula on Thursday evening to leave in the small hours for Corinto or Agua Caliente elsewhere (ở nơi khác) on the border (biên giới), some 260 kilometers away.

She said: “The snow came in the small hours, I think. We had a covering (lớp che phủ) when I got here just after 5.30am and I was thinking ‘if this turned to sleet (mưa tuyết), it might go’. Unfortunately, as I went to walk the course, the snow just got heavier and heavier.

In the small hours of Thursday, police found the body of a rebel (nổi loạn) Awami League councillor candidate from Kumar river in Jhenaidah’s Shailkupa upazila, barely four hours after a ruling party candidate’s brother was found murdered.

By the small hours of Monday morning, the notorious (khét tiếng) social media app Parler went completely dark after Amazon terminated its hosting services, The Verge reports. Apple and Google app stores already banned the app for its unmoderated (chưa được kiểm duyệt) violent content but Amazon's move marks the proverbial nail in the coffin.

Ngọc Lân

Wednesday, January 13, 2021

"Representative bias" nghĩa là gì?

không xứng đáng làm đại diện... Photo by Kyle Ryan on Unsplash.

'Representative bias' = lệch lạc tâm lý do tính đại diện -> nghĩa là xu hướng không quan tâm nhiều đến những nhân tố dài hạn mà thường quan tâm đến những tình huống điển hình ngắn hạn; thiên lệch do tình huống điển hình.

Ví dụ
Investors succumb to (ngừng kháng cự, ngừng chống lại (sự cám dỗ, bệnh tật, cuộc tiến công..); thua, không chịu nổi, không chống nổi; chết) ‘representative bias’ when they arrive at a conclusion based on what they believe the facts suggest or represent, rather than investigating deeper. For instance, you may want to invest in a particular company’s shares because you believe from its marketing pitch that it is an ethical company rather than actually researching its ethics. Just because a company markets itself as ethical and possibly sells higher quality products, it is not to say that buying shares in the company is a sound investment decision.

Male-dominated industries, such as tech, finance and engineering, tend to keep hiring the same types of employees and promoting the same types of workers due to their preference for applicants who match the stereotype of who belongs in these roles – a phenomenon known as representative bias. This perpetuates the status quo that keeps men in prime positions and prevents women and underrepresented minorities from gaining a foothold.

They can fall back on representative bias, where they are influenced by what is "typically" true. In doing so, they can fail to consider other possibilities that contradict their mental templates of an illness. When people are confronted with uncertainty – the situation of every doctor attempting to diagnose a patient – they are susceptible to (nhạy cảm; dễ xúc cảm; dễ bị ảnh hưởng bởi tình cảm) unconscious (làm hoặc nói... không có ý định hoặc không có ý thức; không tự giác; vô tình) emotions and personal biases.

Phạm Hạnh

Tuesday, January 12, 2021

"Shadetree mechanic" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Kay Asante on Unsplash

"Shadetree mechanic" -> nghĩa là thợ máy sửa xe trong điều kiện vật tư, thiết bị tối thiểu, thường là trong gara nhà hoặc trên đường; thợ quèn.

Ví dụ
He explained how he could work on it during his harvest, when the machines had a lot of belts and chains and mechanical (cơ khí) drives. But I told him that he’d been asking for much higher productivity (năng suất), more speed, bigger grain tanks, longer seasons. All of these things mean more efficiency. So, you give up some of that ease of maintenance for systems that are much more complex but also simplified; your software diagnoses issues. In order to get the higher production, the higher efficiencies — that’s what you give up. The days of being a shadetree mechanic, going out and changing out things is becoming less and less.

He describes himself back then as a “shadetree mechanic,” but for guitar and bass, learning through trial and error in the heyday (thời thanh xuân) of hard rock. “I destroyed a lot of guitars on the route to learning to fix them,” he said.

We’ve picked out several different options for the shadetree mechanic, all of them with different strengths. Most good gearheads seem to accumulate (tích trữ) tools over the years; perhaps these will make the grade and take up residence in your basement or garage.

When you’re working on a plumbing (ống nước) project of any size it’s critical to make sure all of your fittings are sealed up to prevent leaks (rò gỉ). There are different shadetree mechanic tricks you can use to accomplish this, however, doing the job right the first time will make your life easier when it comes time to start the project vehicle up.

Ngọc Lân

Monday, January 11, 2021

"Over confidence bias" nghĩa là gì?

có nghề rồi... Photo by Conor Samuel on Unsplash.

'Over confidence bias' = định kiến quá tự tin -> nghĩa là tự đánh giá quá cao kinh nghiệm, chuyên môn của bản thân (không biết "điểm mù" của mình).

Ví dụ
Even the analysts (nhà phân tích) from the broking firms (công ty môi giới chứng khoán) who service the fund managers are human beings and they are exposed to the pitfalls (cạm bẫy, khó khăn không ngờ tới) of emotions (one example has been continuously over estimating the Nifty index’s earnings for the past 4-5 years in spite of being proved wrong for so many years. This might be over confidence bias or over optimistic bias).

Many investors (nhà đầu tư) tend to over-estimate (đánh giá quá cao) their investment expertise or forecasting skills (kỹ năng dự báo) which can lead to what is referred to as the ‘over-confidence’ bias. This bias can result in over-trading or blind spots (điểm mù) when it comes to identifying potential risks in one’s portfolio (danh mục đầu tư). In addition, investors who succumb to this bias often take credit for investment gains on the one hand, while blaming (đổ lỗi) external factors (yếu tố bên ngoài) for any investment losses (thua lỗ) – which, in turn, can result in them making even more over-confident predictions (dự đoán), leading to losses over the long-term.

The belief that one knows more than an experienced, qualified advisor is known as an over-confidence bias. In many instances, it’s a case of ‘you don’t know what you don’t know’ simply because financial planning (lập kế hoạch tài chính) is not your area of expertise, although you like to think it is. Over-confidence is demonstrated daily by investors who attempt to time the markets, despite overwhelming evidence that it is rarely a successful strategy. Whether it’s through over-confidence or lack of trust, not having an advisor who can guide you can result in bad financial decisions being made.

Phạm Hạnh

Sunday, January 10, 2021

"Manic pixie dream boy" nghĩa là gì?


"Manic pixie dream boy" -> nghĩa là nhân vật nam đáng yêu, có tinh thần tự do, được dùng đơn độc làm người yêu hoặc phát triển cá nhân, thay đổi cuộc đời nữ chính (thường chán nản, vỡ mộng), thay vì là một nhân vật chính. 

Ví dụ
Howl from "Howl's Moving Castle" — in all his manic pixie dream boy glory — pops up (xuất hiện) out of nowhere only to flip Sophie's world upside down, ultimately teaching her the importance of compassion (cảm thương) and putting others before herself. He was a flamboyant (lòe loẹt) and carefree spirit with a lost and gentle soul that needs to be protected.

Riley lives in TropeTown, where everyone plays stock roles in novels. Riley, a Manic Pixie Dream Boy, is sent to group therapy (điều trị) after going off-script. Riley knows that breaking the rules again could get him terminated (loại bỏ), yet he feels there must be more to life than recycling the same clichés (câu rập khuôn) for readers' entertainment.

I read Jennifer Niven’s All the Bright Places a couple of years ago, and it was a bit like playing knock-off John Green bingo, right down to the manic-pixie dream girl, only here, it’s a manic-pixie dream boy and he is literally manic (vui buồn thất thường), as the character played by Justice Smith in the movie suffers from undiagnosed (không được chẩn đoán) manic depression.

Now, his behaviour (hành động) is familiar to anyone with even a cursory (vội vã) knowledge of romantic comedies. He’s a cross between a Manic Pixie Dream Boy and what’s been more commonly viewed as a glorified stalker by critics who have started to revisit what we’ve grown to accept as normal in Hollywood’s idea of courting.

Ngọc Lân

"Saintly black character" nghĩa là gì?


"Saintly black character" = nhân vật da đen thánh thiện -> nghĩa là nhân vật da đen xuất hiện đơn độc trong phim ảnh hoặc tác phẩm văn học để làm nổi bật các nhân vật da trắng khác, thường thông qua việc dùng sức mạnh ma thuật.

Ví dụ
The term, first attributed (tượng trưng) to director Spike Lee in the early-2000s, refers to films that usually feature a lone, saintly black character in a predominately (chiếm ưu thế) white universe who, either through supernatural or just plain saccharine means, only serve to enrich the lives of white characters.

Once again, he has a saintly black character (Murphy, as the titular Mr. Church) devoting (cống hiến) decades of his life to caring for a prickly, spoiled, privileged white character. When the film begins in the 1970s, Charlotte is a 10-year-old brat who's shocked and offended when her mother (Natascha McElhone) brings home a chef, as a gift from a dead lover.

However, there are many issues with the presentation. Like, for example, the fact that she's calling herself "Kobe Perry" even after those accusations (buộc tội) of cultural appropriation (chiếm đoạt làm riêng). And, on top of that, Minaj's game-changing halftime performance, which makes her the saving grace of the both the game and video, also falls into the Magical N*gro trap. (The offensive stereotype, as defined by Salon, casts a "saintly" black character as a disconnected, mystical mentor to a white hero, who then goes on to be the one to save the day.)

Ngọc Lân

Saturday, January 9, 2021

"Grinding poverty" nghĩa là gì?


"Grinding poverty" có grind là công việc cực nhọc đều đều -> từ này nghĩa là cảnh nghèo nàn thê thảm, nghèo cùng cực.

Ví dụ
Millions of small farmers (nông dân nhỏ) in Ivory Coast and Ghana, which together grow 60 percent of the world's cocoa, live in grinding poverty.

“In the old days, two maids (người hầu) and a gardener (người làm vườn) were employed to tend the vicarage (hoa lợi của linh mục). I am not prepared to go on seeing my wife trying to do the work of mistress of the house, mother and two maids, and, as a reward, suffer the privations (cảnh thiếu thốn) of grinding poverty.”

The underappreciation for business success can lead to support for policies, such as high taxes and excessive regulation, which can undermine the competitive market process. This is of deep concern because the competitive market process is responsible for driving entrepreneurial risk and investment into the innovations that have not only pulled humans out of grinding poverty, but have collectively raised our standard of living by over 3,000 percent, with most of the gains going to the poorest.

Phạm Hạnh

"Group think bias" nghĩa là gì?

nên tiếp cận nhiều nguồn tin... Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash.

'Group think bias' = định kiến tư duy theo nhóm -> nghĩa là hồ hởi với ý tưởng của số đông và có khuynh hướng không quan tâm đến những quan điểm hay ý tưởng khác với nhóm của mình.

Ví dụ
"One effect of the contraction of the news industry is that journalists (nhà báo) are networking with fewer peers and sources (nguồn tin). In one recently published study, "Sharing Knowledge and 'Microbubbles': Epistemic Communities and Insularity in US Political Journalism," researchers from the University of Illinois explore the extent to which groupthink bias is increasingly being built into the content (nội dung) we consume."

Investors who make investment decisions on the basis that ‘everyone else is doing it’ are succumbing to what is known as ‘herd bias’ (bầy đàn), choosing to believe that ‘everybody can’t be wrong’. This groupthink bias operates on the basis of safety in number where investors take comfort in the fact that everyone is jumping on the same bandwagon. Investing in a share because everyone else is doing the same is fundamentally flawed decision-making, primarily because the decision is not based on research but on the actions of the collective.

Our critics claim we want to turn over nuclear decision making to artificial intelligence devices such as Amazon Echo. While this may be humorous, it is detrimental to actually addressing the challenge the United States faces. We freely acknowledge the current limitations of artificial intelligence technologies, but we do not agree that these same limitations will necessarily exist one, five, or ten years hence. For skeptics of AI, there is an expectation that it must be perfect 100 percent of the time if it is to replace people. Yet humans are not held to the same standard. They are deeply flawed and prone to mistakes from stress, group think, bias, and other cognitive challenges. We have avoided nuclear miscalculations and mistakes not by ensuring individual perfection but by taking a layered approach to security. The same would be required with any AI.

Phạm Hạnh

Wednesday, January 6, 2021

"Bronx cheer" nghĩa là gì?

Typical New Yorker. Photo courtesy: Angela Martini

"Bronx cheer" = chúc mừng kiểu Bronx -> nghĩa là bĩu môi và tạo ra một âm thanh bằng cách lè lưỡi và thổi để chế giễu hoặc coi thường người khác. Cụm từ bắt nguồn từ một sự kiện thể thao tại khu Bronx của thành phố New York.

Ví dụ
So, instead, Ivanka will carry her father’s political brand forward. But with New York giving the Trumps a “Bronx cheer,” Ivanka’s likely launch site will be Florida — a state her father won in 2016 and 2020, and the home of his glitzy (phù phiếm) Mar-a-Lago resort and country club.

California Gov. Gavin Newsom’s messaging about how to control the virus has been shaky at times. And he certainly deserves a Bronx cheer for attending a birthday party for his political adviser with several other families, defying his public advice to social distance. It didn’t help that the event took place at the French Laundry, a chic Napa Valley restaurant.

As everybody on this call and everybody in the financial world knows, the Fed reacted very swiftly, by Fed standards, by cutting interest rates this week. The markets were happy for about 15 minutes, and then they gave it a Bronx cheer. I think that illustrates a couple of things: It illustrates that feeding the beast when the beast is hungry is almost impossible. Or, you can feed him, but you’re never going to satiate (thỏa mãn) him.

Ngân Nguyễn

"Curse of knowledge bias" nghĩa là gì?

luôn tự soi mình... Photo by Gian Paolo Aliatis on Unsplash.

'Curse of knowledge bias' = định kiến trong tri thức -> nghĩa là không muốn tìm hiểu hay không thèm quan tâm đến những ý tưởng của người khác; nghĩ rằng người khác khó mà hiểu được hết những ý tưởng siêu việt của mình.

Ví dụ
To beat the curse of knowledge, the Heath brothers suggest using concrete language, as well as storytelling. A story format is a great way to illustrate something complex. As to why, the Heaths and other experts believe storytelling forces the use of understandable language and concepts.

Why is it so common for companies to message the post-purchase delighter, rather than the purchase driver? I believe it stems from the cognitive fallacy psychologists have dubbed the “curse of knowledge.” Often when we’re inside a company making a product, we are very familiar with the pain and solution. We are well past the stage of needing the purchase-driver message, so we become disproportionately immersed in the post-purchase delighters.

We may not know the term, but we all have been involved in situations where the curse of knowledge has been in play. A common occurrence is when C-level executives give speeches at a company-wide meeting. C-level jargon is typically very different from that of someone operating a piece of manufacturing equipment. If the executive is unaware of that, it won't be long before a majority of those in the audience will be zoned out due to a lack of understanding what the speech has to do with them. 

Phạm Hạnh

Tuesday, January 5, 2021

"Mistaken zeal" nghĩa là gì?

yêu con, nhưng đừng chiều con quá... Photo by Daiga Ellaby on Unsplash.

'Mistaken zeal' nghĩa là nhiệt tình không đúng chỗ.

Ví dụ
“Power is like the ocean; not easily admitting limits to be fixed in it.” “It will be much easier for me to bear the unmerited reflections of a mistaken zeal, than the just reproaches of a guilty mind.” “A good man ought to serve his country, even tho’ she resents his services.”

By the nineteen-twenties, attitudes toward mothers had begun to shift. Some psychologists and other experts warned against over-mothering, and commentators blamed mothers for the nation’s ills. A 1923 ad for izal Disinfectant tells the sad tale of “The Mother Who Loved Too Well.” “In her mistaken zeal,” a young mother yielded too much to her baby’s demands, leaving “no spoken or implied wish ungratified.” Weakened by her excessive attention, the baby died. (Abbott Laboratories, which sold the disinfectant, encouraged people instead to visit the doctor regularly, as part of a national campaign “to check the spread of disease.”)

Pinchot had laid out his goals for US forestry even prior to taking the helm of the Division of Forestry. Employed at age twenty-six as manager of the forests on George W. Vanderbilt’s massive Biltmore estate, Pinchot wrote in Garden and Forestry that his work there “should do much to remove forestry from the anomalous and often illogical position into which the mistaken zeal of some of its friends have forced it, and to ground its roots in the solid Earth of business common sense . . . [My work] asserts a proposition which must ultimately lie at the base of forest preservation in this country: namely, that it is not necessary to destroy a forest to make it pay.”

Phạm Hạnh

"Mistaken kindness" nghĩa là gì?

"cách mạng" chỉ khiến nông dân lười thêm thôi... Photo by Clay Banks on Unsplash.

'Mistaken kindness' có mistaken là sai lầm trong ý kiến -> cụm từ này nghĩa là lòng tốt không đúng chỗ.

Ví dụ
In 1933 surgeons (bác sĩ phẫu thuật) discussing stomach cancer (ung thư dạ dày) quoted, approvingly, an old Arab saying that “he is no physician who has not slain many patients.” Concern for patients’ quality of life was castigated as “mistaken kindness.” In 1962, a ward where children were administered multiple chemotherapy (hóa trị) agents was called a “butcher shop.”

As historian Eric Foner writes in Reconstruction, when radical Republicans in Congress considered redistributing land (chia đất) owned by defeated Confederates to former slaves (nô lệ), their more moderate comrades offered arguments like "for the government to give blacks land would be an act of 'mistaken kindness' that would prevent them from learning 'the habits of free workingmen.” Freedmen were begging for land so they could work it for themselves instead of being forced to work the land of their former masters for pitiable wages--former masters who had grown wealthy on generations of slaves' uncompensated (không được đền bù) labor. Still, opponents of land redistribution believed this would make blacks lazy (lười biếng). 

Indigenous (thổ dân, bản địa) people barely warrant a mention in Strangers, as Woodsworth lumps them into a four-page section called “The Negro and the Indian,” wherein Woodsworth promotes Christian proselytization, education and assimilation as the only hope for these “savages”: “Many are devout Christians leading exemplary lives, but there are still 10,202 Indians in our Dominion, as grossly pagan as their ancestors, or still more wretched, half-civilized, only to be debauched.” Woodsworth mused, “the Indian of today is very much nearer to the civilized white than to his pagan ancestor,” which assumed progress he warns has been hampered by “the mistaken kindness of the State.”

Phạm Hạnh

Sunday, January 3, 2021

"Make-work project" nghĩa là gì?


"Make-work project" -> nghĩa là kế hoạch, công việc có ít mục đích, giá trị, dùng để mua việc cho người khác là chính; 'việc cho có'.

Ví dụ
The Belt and Road Initiative (sáng kiến) (BRI) is a branding exercise for China and its leader and a make-work project for state enterprises. It is also a national security strategy that adapts US Cold War policy to China’s present circumstance.

The Kolyma Highway was a make-work project, “Stalin’s citadel of repression (đàn áp).” Andrew Higgins, a reporter at The New York Times, wrote a recent article (bài báo) on the Kolyma Highway, that appeared in the Sunday, Nov. 22 edition. Higgins quotes from Varlam Shalamov’s short story collection, “Kolyma Tales.”

It feels like a make-work project. I’d rather see resources put into a campaign focused on drivers instead of lecturing (giảng dạy) pedestrians to watch out for reckless people behind the wheel. Pedestrians already know this. Many drivers don’t.

Walls make work project was promptly kyboshed by Sask. taxpayers but now this make work project rears it ugly head again thanks to Trudeau. It's no surprise that the Sask. Party can't wait to spend taxpayers money on something oil companies should be paying for.

Ngọc Lân

"Dream bias" nghĩa là gì?


'Dream bias' = định kiến trong mơ ước -> nghĩa là mắc kẹt” trong những ước mơ mà không biết rằng 99% ước mơ ấy sẽ không thể trở thành hiện thực; tầm nhìn hạn hẹp.

Ví dụ
Take this quiz to find out who your NCT Dream bias should be based on your interests and personality.

I had struggled having Dream bias up until We Go Up era and it took Take Off for WayV. I don't pick my biases. They pick me.

Phạm Hạnh

Saturday, January 2, 2021

"In tow" nghĩa là gì?

'In tow' nghĩa là đi cùng, đi theo sau.

Ví dụ
With Freezers in Tow, U.S. Employers Rush to Fill Vaccine Void.

Snow continues to fall on Northeast US, with vaccines in tow.

The family says they are still living in Austin with family and continue working to get back to their home now with little Jordan Jr. in tow.

By the next morning-May 1, 1970-more than 31,000 American and 43,000 South Vietnamese troops (lính VNCH) were pouring over the border (biên giới) into Fish Hook (Móc Câu) and Parrot's Beak (Mỏ Vẹt). With little sleep, Nixon paid an impromptu (tùy hứng, không chuẩn bị trước) visit to the Pentagon with Kissinger in tow. His comments about "these bums blowing up campuses" made headlines, but his words inside were more hair-raising.

Phạm Hạnh

"In stitches" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by KAL VISUALS on Unsplash.

'In stitches' -> nghĩa là cười không kiềm chế nổi. 

Ví dụ
Mum left in stitches by "adorable" (đáng yêu) note she finds in daughter's bedroom.

A Woolworths supermarket customer has been left in stitches after discovering an hilarious (hài hước) fail in her New Year’s Eve decoration.

Rylan had viewers in stitches with his antics on the programme, which sees comedians (diễn viên hài) Greg Davies and Alex Horne set the celebs a series of tasks that they have to complete using random props.

Owens went to produce the yellow card from his pocket, but was then left a tad embarrassed when he couldn't locate them. "I haven't got my cards," he said sheepishly. It left the Premier Sports commentators (bình luận viên) in stitches, but luckily replacements were found and Screech was given his marching orders.

Phạm Hạnh

"Attentional bias" nghĩa là gì?

nên đọc thêm review về sản phẩm ko lại tốn tiền bây giờ :) Photo by Ruthson Zimmerman on Unsplash.

"Attentional bias" = định kiến trong sự quan tâm -> nghĩa là khuynh hướng tránh xa những dữ liệu không nhất quán với suy nghĩ của mình.

Ví dụ
Depressed (trầm cảm) people are more likely to enjoy internet memes that contain themes related to sadness (buồn bã), hopelessness (vô vọng) or isolation (cô lập) — and they also show an attentional bias towards these images.

Attentional bias refers to our tendency to pay attention to information that we find most emotionally engaging and ignore information that we don’t. Given the intense, in-the-moment nature of threats and opportunities in the ancestral savanna, this bias is understandable. Yet, in the modern environment, sometimes information that doesn’t feel emotionally salient is the most important data.

Attentional bias is a trick that our own brains play on us. Say an advert for a new smart watch catches your attention – it's sleek (bóng, mượt, kiểu dáng đẹp) and smart and cool. After you've seen the advert, your brain reminds you of it, and, because of that reminder, you start to think about it more. You imagine yourself wearing the watch, its face glinting (lóe sáng, lấp lánh) against the cuff of your shirt. It bleeps you through ticket barriers and supermarket checkouts, it counts your steps and helps you track exercise goals, you lose weight and get into the best shape of your life… before you know it, your brain has created a whole narrative around this thing you've seen once, and you're desperate to buy it because it will change your life. According to Trent Hamm at Lifehacker, the best thing you can do to beat attentional bias is to read negative reviews of the item to balance out you ideas of its perfection, and to consider the ‘opportunity cost', which is the things you'll take away from if you buy the item (for example, if you spend several hundred pounds on a smart watch, it means you can't put money towards the house deposit you're saving for).

Phạm Hạnh

"The silent majority" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Amy Tran on Unsplash

"The silent majority" = số đông im lặng -> nghĩa là nhóm người có ý kiến nhất định nhưng không công khai chúng. 

Ví dụ
I believe I am part of the silent majority on COVID-19 and need to speak up (“Our letters page is evidence (bằng chứng) that L.A.'s COVID-19 messaging is failing,” Opinion, Dec. 5).

It truly appears that the silent majority have at long last begun to assert their authority and return to the ancient traditions of displaying the fact that the UK is predominately (hơn hẳn) a Christian country and that the ‘happy holiday’ appeasers have no actual rights whatsoever to interfere with its Nativity celebrations.

The essential point, however, is the watershed (bước ngoặt) argument: that the silent majority of our citizens have now collectively had it up to their nose with this so-called “development”. 

Although we have done it all along, in 2021, we will be pushing you even harder to make your voice heard. Because although important change can be made by a few loud voices, we’re tired of the vocal minority overruling (lấn át) the silent majority. We’re guessing you are, too.

Ngọc Lân

Thursday, December 31, 2020

"Recency bias" nghĩa là gì?

2020 là năm tệ nhất trong lịch sử rồi... Photo by Matthew Waring on Unsplash.

"Recency bias" = định kiến do những tác động gần đây -> nghĩa là xu hướng tin những chuyện thường xuất hiện gần đây có thể tiếp tục xuất hiện trong tương lai ngay cả khi về lâu dài thì không phải vậy.

Ví dụ
CBS Sports' Hey Nineteen power rankings is a weekly encapsulation (tóm lược, gói gọn) of the 19 hottest and most successful teams in college basketball as of late, combining team quality with win quality and leaving no shame for recency bias while rewarding significant winning streaks. 

But even then, as much as I'm happy for Ronaldo to take home the top prize, there seems to be an overall recency bias because it's scandalous to see so many older legends get so few votes.

What 2020 had was the COVID-19 pandemic and its extensive and comprehensive disruption of communities and commerce and an extraordinarily divisive presidential election. Perhaps it’s recency bias, but it feels like 2020, even without a war, belongs in consideration for worst year ever. There is also the fact that 1918 and 1968 lacked the internet and social media, which seems to create the potential for a 24/7 pummeling of bad news. So, perhaps it wasn’t the worst year ever, but just felt like it.

Phạm Hạnh

Monday, December 28, 2020

"Silver-tongued orator" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Jesse Paul on Unsplash

"Silver-tongued orator" = nhà diễn thuyết lưỡi bạc -> nghĩa là người phát biểu, diễn giả có sức thuyết phục, hùng biện. 

Ví dụ
Bryan was a silver-tongued orator who could charm (mê hoặc) birds out of the trees with his flowery speaking. In fact, the former congressman and failed Senate candidate from Nebraska unexpectedly won the nomination after delivering his “Cross of Gold Speech” at the Democratic convention, considered one of the most remarkable pieces of oratory in political history.

Biden has that same sense of decency (đứng đắn). His sense of empathy was forged through hardship — losing a wife and two children, not to mention his father having to uproot (buộc phải rời bỏ gia đình để kiếm sống) the family so he could find steady work — so he understands how quickly life can turn. Thanks to a lifetime struggle with stuttering, he is no silver-tongued orator. His connection to others is on a human level.

Frederick Douglass, one of our more brilliant and towering political figures, carved out numerous acts in his lengthy Shakespearean life, from enslaved (nô lệ) man to silver-tongued orator to global celebrity. 

Running Antelope was interviewed in 1883 by the Bismarck Tribune, which described him as “the silver-tongued orator of the Sioux nation.” The paper asked him about the extermination (tiêu diệt) of the buffalo and he predicted grimly “if the present slaughter by the white men continues, buffalo will not last more than two years.”

Ngọc Lân

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