Lịch sử xây dựng nhà nước Mexico

biến động phức tạp, trong 50 năm giai đoạn 1821-1875 có tới 800 cuộc nổi loạn, giai đoạn 1830-1863 có tới 112 bộ trưởng tài chính,

ly khai texas,

Mexico in the nineteenth century presents a dramatic example (ví dụ đầy kịch tính) of this problem. Mexico suffered extreme political instability and strife in the nineteenth century. There were 800 revolts between 1821 and 1875. Between independence in 1821 and 1900, Mexico had 72 different chief executives, meaning that the average term was only a little more than one year long. Likewise, the country had 112 finance ministers (bộ trưởng tài chính) between 1830 and 1863. In addition there were several invasions (cuộc xâm lăng) and secessionist movements (phong trào ly khai).

The country also experimented with several different forms of government, including two empires (one headed by a French-backed, Austrian-born member of the Habsburg dynasty), one disputed period where there were presidents from both main parties, four republics
(nước cộng hòa), one provisional republic (cộng hòa lâm thời), and a long dictatorship (chế độ độc tài). President Guadalupe Victoria was the first constitutionally elected (bầu cử) president of the country, and the only one who would complete a full term (hết nhiệm kỳ) in the first 30 years of independence.

Some other examples: There were four Mexican presidents in the years 1829, 1839, 1846, 1847, and 1853, while there were five in 1844 and 1855 and eight in 1833. Antonio López de Santa Anna, who was President of Mexico on ten separate occasions (dịp), was president four different times in a single year.

Mexico faced constant challenges to its sovereignty in the first 50 years of independence, from the secessions of Texas and Central America, to the secession attempts of the Yucatán, as well as numerous smaller rebellions.

from the excellent Robin Grier, from Works in Progress.

source: marginal revolution,

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