Tìm hiểu về dòng sông lịch sử
Sông Volga: Lịch sử dòng sông vĩ đại nhất nước Nga
…the religious composition (thành phần tôn giáo) on the Volga is complex (phức tạp). Finno-Ugric settlers originally followed shamanistic beliefs, although many converted, at least nominally, to Orthodoxy after they became subjects of the Russian Empire. The ruler (người cai trị) and the elite (giới thượng lưu) in Khazaria probably converted to Judaism sometime in the early ninth century. Kalmyks in the south and south-east of the Volga were Buddhists (the only Buddhists in Europe). The Bolgar state, the Golden Horse and the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan were, or became, Muslim. the Russian and Soviet states were conscious of the potential threat of Islam in the Volga region from the time of the conquest of Kazan in 1552. The history of the Volga is, in part, the history of (often forced) conversion (chuyển đổi) to Orthodoxy by the Russian government and the reaction to this of the local inhabitants. In many cases, the conversion process was incomplete or, in the case of Islam, could be reversed (đảo ngược). The remoteness (sự xa xôi) of much of the Volga countryside attracted Old Believers — that is, schismatics (ly giáo) from the Russian Orthodox Church who did not accept the changes in liturgy (phụng vụ) and practice in the middle of the seventeenth century.