Một nghiên cứu rất khoa học
"nỗi sợ đỏ" dấn tới chủ nghĩa phát xít ở Ý những năm 1919...
In this paper, we argue that there was a strong link (liên kết mạnh mẽ) between the surge of support (sự ủng hộ đột ngột) for the Socialist Party after World War I (WWI) and the subsequent emergence (sự xuất hiện tiếp theo) of Fascism in Italy. We first develop a source of variation in Socialist support across Italian municipalities (đô thị) in the 1919 election based on war casualties (thương vong chiến tranh) from the area. We show that these casualties are unrelated to a battery (bộ dụng cụ) of political, economic and social variables before the war and had a major impact on Socialist support (partly because the Socialists were the main anti-war political movement). Our main result is that this boost to Socialist support (that is “exogenous” to the prior political leaning of the municipality) led to greater local Fascist activity as measured by local party branches (chi bộ đảng địa phương) and Fascist political violence (bạo lực chính trị) (squadrismo), and to significantly larger vote share of the Fascist Party in the 1924 election. We document that the increase in the vote share of the Fascist Party was not at the expense of the Socialist Party and instead came from right-wing parties, thus supporting our interpretation that center-right and right-wing voters coalesced (kết lại) around the Fascist Party because of the “red scare” (nỗi sợ đỏ).