Tính co giãn của nguồn cung
khi trữ lượng lớn lithium ở miệng núi lửa dọc biên giới Nevada-Oregon, các nhà kinh tế không bất ngờ, vì giá tăng, thì chắc chắn có nguồn cung mới được phát hiện thôi, trường hợp này là Lithium Americas Corporation bỏ công tìm từ nhiều năm rồi...
When I first read about the discovery of a vast new deposit of lithium in a volcanic crater (trữ lượng lithium trong miệng núi lửa) along the Nevada-Oregon border, I can’t say that I was surprised. Not because I know anything about geology — but because, as an economist, I am a strong believer in the concept of elasticity of supply…
Now about elasticity of supply (độ co giãn của nguồn cung), in which we economists tend to have more faith than do most people. Time and again over the centuries, economists have observed that resource shortages are often remedied by discovery, innovation and conservation — all induced by market prices. To put it simply: If a resource is scarce (khan hiếm), and there is upward pressure on its price, new supplies will usually be found.
Not surprisingly, the Lithium Americas Corporation put in a lot of the work behind the discovery. Searching for new lithium deposits has been on the rise worldwide, as large parts of the world remain understudied and, for the purposes of lithium, undersampled. Just as Adam Smith’s invisible hand metaphor would lead one to expect, that set off many new lithium-hunting investigations (cuộc điều tra săn tìm lithium).
Sometimes the new supplies will be for lithium substitutes rather than for lithium itself. In the case of batteries, relevant potential substitutes include aqueous magnesium batteries, solid-state batteries, sodium-based batteries, sodium antimony telluride intermetallic anodes (cực dương liên kim natri antimon telluride), sodium-sulfur batteries, seawater batteries, graphene batteries, and manganese hydrogen batteries. I’m not passing judgment on any of these particular approaches — I am just noting that there are many possible margins for innovation to succeed.