Từ thiện kiểu mới
4 nhà kinh tế thử nghiệm phương thức từ thiện đơn giản: đưa trực tiếp tiền cho người dân ở Kenya (1.000 usd trong vòng 10 tháng), họ muốn làm gì với số tiền đó thì làm
Paul Niehaus, Michael Faye, Rohit Wanchoo, and Jeremy Shapiro came up with a radically (hoàn toàn) simple plan (kế hoạch đơn giản) shaped by their own academic research. They would give poor families in rural Kenya $1,000 over the course of 10 months, and let them do whatever they wanted with the money. They hoped the recipients (người nhận) would spend it on nutrition (dinh dưỡng), health care (chăm sóc sức khỏe), and education (giáo dục). But, theoretically (lý thuyết), they could use it to purchase alcohol or drugs. The families would decide on their own.
…Three years later, the four economists expanded their private effort (nỗ lực riêng) into GiveDirectly, a charity (từ thiện) that accepts online donations (quyên góp trực tuyến) from the public, as well. Ninety-two cents of every dollar donated to GiveDirectly is transferred to poor households through M-PESA, a cell phone banking service with 11,000 agents working in Kenya. GiveDirectly chooses recipients by targeting homes made of mud or thatch (tranh), as opposed to more durable materials, such as cement or iron. The typical family participating in the program lives on just 65 nominal cents-per-person-per-day. Four in ten have had a child go at least a full day without food in the last month.
Initial reports from the field are positive. According to Niehaus, GiveDirectly recipients are spending their payments mostly on food and home improvements that can vastly improve quality of life (cải thiện đáng kể chất lượng cuộc sống), such as installing a weatherproof tin roof (mái thiếc chịu được thời tiết). Some families have invested in profit-bearing businesses, such as chicken-rearing, agriculture, or the vending of clothes, shoes, or charcoal.
More information on GiveDirectly’s impact will be available next year, when an NIH-funded evaluation of the organization’s work is complete. Yet already, GiveDirectly is receiving rave reviews.