Vì sao ngành IT của Ấn Độ phát triển?
đó là do bùng nổ internet và chính sách nhập cư của Mỹ (thay đổi giới hạn visa H-1B)...
We study how US immigration policy and the Internet boom (sự bùng nổ Internet) affected not just the US, but also led to a tech boom in India. Students and workers in India acquired computer science skills to join the rapidly growing US IT industry. As the number of US visas was capped (giới hạn), many remained in India, enabling the growth of an Indian IT sector that eventually surpassed (vượt qua) the US in IT exports. We leverage variation in immigration quotas and US demand across occupations to show that India experienced a ‘brain gain’ when the probability of migrating to the US was higher. Changes in the US H-1B cap induced changes in fields of study, and occupation choice in India. We then build and estimate a quantitative model incorporating (kết hợp) trade, innovation, and dynamic occupation choice in both countries. We find that high-skill migration (dân nhập cư trình độ cao) raised the average welfare of workers in each country, but had distributional consequences (hậu quả phân phối). The H-1B program induced Indians to switch to computer science occupations, and helped drive the shift in IT production from the US to India. We show that accounting for endogenous skill acquisition is key for quantifying the gains from migration (định lượng lợi ích từ việc di cư).
from a new paper by Gaurav Khanna and Nicolas Morales.
source: marginal revolution,