Nghiên cứu mới về việc lao động trí thức cao nhưng thu nhập giảm ở Trung Quốc

các chuyên gia cho rằng lợi ích tài chính giảm dù trình độ học vấn cao hơn là điều bình thường khi chịu tác động từ cải thiện chất lượng giáo dục và thay đổi cung-cầu của thị trường lao động.


A new study on the distribution (phân bổ) and development of human capital (vốn nhân lực) in China shows a rise in the average years of education in the country’s labor force (lực lượng lao động) between 1985 and 2021. The study also indicates (chỉ ra) a decline in the financial benefits (lợi ích tài chính) of education, with diminishing returns (lợi nhuận giảm dần) for each extra year of schooling. 

Drawing on data from the National Bureau of Statistics (Cục Thống kê Quốc gia) various universities, and social survey departments, this annual report, compiled by the Central University of Finance and Economics and now in its 15th year, has become a key indicator of China’s labor market trends (xu hướng thị trường lao động).

The report indicates (chỉ ra) that from 1985 to 2021, the average years of education for the urban labor force increased from 8.23 to 11.69, while in rural China, it increased from 5.47 to 9.24. 

At the same time, gender disparities (chênh lệch) giới tính) in the average years of education for the labor force are gradually diminishing. As of 2020, urban males had an average of 11.53 years of education, while females had 11.61. In rural areas, males had 9.30 years, and females had 9.06.

Despite the improvement, the financial returns (lợi nhuận tài chính) for each extra year of education, particularly for women in urban areas, have declined. For instance, in 2008, urban males could expect an 8.3% increase in income for every year of additional education. However, by 2020, this dropped to 5.7%. Similarly, urban females saw their education return rate decrease from 10% to 6% during the same period.

Professor Li Haizheng, who led the study, told financial outlet Yicai that diminishing returns on education is normal as the overall level of education rises. He stated that these returns are influenced by the quality of education (chất lượng giáo dục) and shifts in the labor market’s supply and demand (cung và cầu). 

“The deceleration (chậm lại)  in technological advancement is another factor impacting the value of human capital, and last, economic development and corresponding shifts (thay đổi tương ứng) in the labor market structure are contributing to the slowdown in income growth. This may lead to a reduction in income disparities (chênh lệch thu nhập) among workers of different skill levels,” he said. 

source: Sixth Tone, 

Post a Comment

Tin liên quan

    Tài chính

    Trung Quốc