Mục tiêu xung đột của Brazil: Bảo vệ Amazon và bơm thêm nhiều dầu

Petrobras thuộc sở hữu nhà nước sớm trở thành nhà sản xuất dầu lớn thứ ba thế giới, trái ngược hoàn toàn với lời hứa của nước này trong việc chống biến đổi khí hậu và làm chậm quá trình tàn phá Amazon

Through his office window, the head of Brazil’s state-run oil company looked out at the cluttered landscape of Rio de Janeiro. Looking back at him, across the city’s run-down high-rises, was the looming statue of Christ the Redeemer. Hawks circled an overflowing trash heap (đống rác tràn ngập). Plumes of smoke rose from a blaze in a hillside shantytown (khu ổ chuột sườn đồi).

His company, Petrobras, is planning such a rapid increase in oil production that it could become the world’s third-largest producer by 2030, a transformation he believes could play a role in lessening the poverty dotting his vista. This, even as his country positions itself as a leader in the fight against climate change (đấu tranh chống biến đổi khí hậu) which, of course, is primarily driven by the burning of oil and other fossil fuels.

It’s an argument that bedevils global efforts to reduce reliance on fossil fuels (nhiên liệu hóa thạch). Industrialized countries like the United States, which became economic superpowers by emitting huge amounts of greenhouse gases (khí nhà kính), are still the world’s biggest per capita producers and consumers of fossil fuels.

That tension has dominated years of climate negotiations and will once again be front and center at this year’s United Nations-sponsored summit being held in November in Azerbaijan. There, negotiators from nearly all the world’s nations are hoping to tackle the thorny issue of how richer countries can channel more money toward poorer ones (chuyển nhiều tiền tới người nghèo)to help them both adopt cleaner energy sources as well as adapt to climate change’s effects.

The world is relying on Brazil for leadership on this issue, and it has made ambitious pledges (cam kết đầy tham vọng) to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Those pledges are more ambitious, she made sure to note, than those of the United States or many other countries that have higher standards of living than Brazil.

source: nytimes,

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