Làm thế nào Trung Quốc thống trị thế giới về năng lượng mặt trời?

Bắc Kinh dự kiến tăng cường hoạt động sản xuất và lắp đặt tấm pin mặt trời khi nước này tìm cách làm chủ thị trường toàn cầu và hạn chế nhập khẩu

China unleashed the full might of its solar energy industry last year. It installed more solar panels than the United States has in its history. It cut the wholesale price of panels it sells by nearly half. And its exports of fully assembled solar panels (lắp ráp tấm pin mặt trời) climbed 38 percent while its exports of key components almost doubled.

Get ready for an even bigger display of China’s solar energy dominance.

While the United States and Europe are trying to revive renewable energy production and help companies fend off bankruptcy, China is racing far ahead.

At the annual session of China’s legislature this week, Premier Li Qiang, the country’s second-highest official after Xi Jinping, announced that the country would accelerate the construction of solar panel farms as well as wind and hydroelectric projects.

China’s solar exports have already drawn urgent responses. In the United States, the Biden administration has introduced subsidies that cover much of the cost of making solar panels and part of the much higher cost of installing them.

The alarm in Europe is particularly great. Officials are bitter that a dozen years ago, China subsidized (trợ cấp) its factories to make solar panels while European governments offered subsidies to buy panels made anywhere. That led to an explosion of consumer purchases (bùng nổ sức mua của người tiêu dùng) from China that hurt Europe’s solar industry.

In 2010, Applied Materials, a Silicon Valley company, built two extensive labs in Xi’an, the city in western China famous for terra-cotta warriors. Each lab was the size of two football fields. They were intended to do final testing for assembly lines with robots that could churn out solar panels with practically no human labor.

But within several years, Chinese companies had figured out how to do it themselves. Applied Materials considerably cut back its production of solar panel tooling and focused on making similar equipment that makes semiconductors (chất bán dẫn).

source: nytimes,

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