‘Không có công việc nào khác’: Nguồn gốc thuộc địa của nghèo đói ở Philippines

nhiều thập kỷ sau khi giành độc lập, Philippines thiếu loại hình nền kinh tế công nghiệp thúc đẩy các quốc gia châu Á khác, buộc hàng triệu người phải làm việc đồng áng

Rodino Sawan stepped into the wire harness and dug his toes into the muddy track (đường lầy lội) that threads the sweltering plantation (đồn điền oi bức) . He pushed forward, straining against the cargo trailing behind him: 25 bunches of freshly harvested bananas strung from hooks (móc câu) attached to an assembly line (dây chuyền).

Six days a week, Mr. Sawan, 55, a father of five, tows batches of fruit that weigh 1,500 pounds to a nearby processing plant (nhà máy chế biến), often as planes buzz overhead, misting down pesticides (thuốc trừ sâu). He returns home with aches in his back and daily wages of 380 Philippine pesos, or about $6.80.

One day last year, the plantation (đồn điền) bosses fired him. The next day, they hired him back into the same role as a contractor, cutting his pay by 25 percent.

The desperation (tình trạng tuyệt vọng) confronting tens of millions of landless Filipinos stems (bắt nguồn từ) in part from policies imposed (áp đặt) by the powers that controlled the archipelago for centuries — first Spain, and then the United States.

For generations, members of the community (cộng đồng) lived along the banks of the Pulangi river, under the shade of teak and mahogany trees. They harvested cassava, hunted wild boar and caught fish from the river. They drank from a pristine spring.

Those who remain in rural areas typically plant and harvest pineapples, coconut and bananas, laboring largely (lao động phần lớn) for the benefit of the wealthy.

source: nytimes,

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