Quốc gia nghèo viết cuốn sổ tay mới để làm giàu

nền kinh tế tập trung vào xuất khẩu giúp hàng triệu người thoát khỏi đói nghèo, thay đổi mang tính thời đại trong thương mại, chuỗi cung ứng và công nghệ khiến việc này trở nên khó khăn hơn nhiều

For more than half a century, the handbook for how developing countries can grow rich hasn’t changed much: Move subsistence farmers into manufacturing jobs (công việc sản xuất), and then sell what they produce to the rest of the world.

The recipe — customized in varying ways by Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and China — has produced the most potent engine the world has ever known for generating economic growth. It has helped lift hundreds of millions of people out of poverty (thoát khỏi đói nghèo), create jobs and raise standards of living.

Multinationals like Goldman Sachs, Victoria’s Secret and the Economist magazine have flocked to the city and set up hundreds of operational hubs — known as global capability centers — to handle accounting, design products, develop cybersecurity systems and artificial intelligence, and more.

Many developing nations remain focused on building export-oriented industries as the path to prosperity. And that’s how it should be, said Justin Yifu Lin, dean of the Institute of New Structural Economics at Peking University.

Pessimism about the classic development formula, he said, has been fueled by a misguided belief that the growth process was automatic: Just clear the way for the free market and the rest will take care of itself.

With a weakening global economy (kinh tế toàn cầu suy yếu), developing countries will need to wring every bit of growth they can from every corner of their economies. Industrial policy is essential, Mr. Rodrik of Harvard said, but it should focus on smaller service firms (công ty dịch vụ nhỏ hơn) and households because that is going to be the source of most future growth.

source: nytimes,

Post a Comment

Tin liên quan

    Tài chính

    Trung Quốc