"Submerged tenth" nghĩa là gì?
Children in a remote Lao village near the border to Vietnam. Photo courtesy M M.
'Submerged tenth' có từ submerge là dìm, nhận chìm và tenth là một phần mười; vì thế cụm từ này nghĩa là tầng lớp cùng khổ trong xã hội.
He talked about creating a social scheme for the ‘submerged tenth’. These were the poorest in society. He said they needed to be given skills and opportunities to get themselves out of poverty.
It had already established a city colony in Whitechapel, and its founder William Booth hoped that its rural counterpart would be the "second rung on the ladder" for "the submerged tenth" – "all and any who have been shipwrecked (bị đắm tàu) in life, character, or circumstances".
Tuberculosis (bệnh lao) was an omnipresent (có mặt ở khắp nơi) topic in textbooks on eugenics (thuyết ưu sinh). Typical was a chapter in Davenport’s Heredity (tính di truyền) in Relation to Eugenics (1911). He claimed that only the “submerged tenth” was vulnerable (dễ bị tổn thương). “The germs (vi trùng, mầm bệnh) are ubiquitous (có mặt ở khắp nơi),” he wrote. “Why do only 10 percent die from the attacks of this parasite (động vật ký sinh, kẻ ăn bám)? …It seems perfectly plain that death from tuberculosis is the result of infection added to natural and acquired (mắc phải) non-resistance. It is then highly undesirable that two persons with weak resistance should marry.…”
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