"Quận Ocean" là chuẩn hướng
ở China đã có các thành phố tư nhân rồi, vn mới "quận"... :)
In Rising private city operators (vận hành thành phố tư nhân) in contemporary (đương thời) China, Jiao and Yu report that China’s private cities are growing.
…the last decade (thập kỷ vừa qua) has witnessed a large growth in private city operators (vận hành) (PCOs) who plan, finance, build, operate and manage the infrastructure and public amenities (tiện nghi) of a new city as a whole. Different from previous PPPs, PCOs are a big breakthrough (đột phá)…they manage urban planning (quy hoạch đô thị), industry development (phát triển công nghiệp), investment attraction (thu hút đầu tư), and public goods and services (hàng hóa và dịch vụ công). In other words, the traditional core functions (chức năng cốt lõi truyền thống) of municipal governments (chính quyền thành phố) are contracted out (thuê tư nhân làm), and consequently (kết quả là), a significant neoliberal urban governance structure has become more prominent in China.
In the new business model, the China Fortune Land Development Co., Ltd. (CFLD) was undoubtedly the earliest and most successful. It manages 125 new cities or towns with a total area of over 4000 km2. Founded in 1998, the enterprise group has grown into a business giant with an annual income of CNY 83.8 billion in 2018. The company’s financial statements demonstrate that the annual return rate of net assets has grown as much as 30% annually from 2011 to 2018, which is the highest among the Chinese Fortune 500 companies.
As Rajagopalan and I argued in Lessons from Gurgaon, India’s Private City the key development has been to scale large enough so that the private operator internalizes (nội hóa) the externalities (ngoại vi). Quoting Jiao and Yu again:
The key to solving this problem is to internalize positive externality so that costs and benefits mainly affect the parties who choose to incur them. The solution of the new model is to outsource Gu’An New Industry City as a whole to CFLD, which becomes involved in the life cycle including planning, infrastructure and amenity construction, investment attraction, operations and maintenance, and enterprise services. In this way, a city is regarded as a special product or a spatial cluster of public goods and services that can be produced by the coalition of the public and private sectors. The large-scale comprehensive development by a single private developer internalizes the externality of non-exclusive public amenities successfully and achieves a closed-loop return on investment.
As a result private firms are willing to make large investments. In Gu’An, an early CFLD city, for example:
CFLD has invested CNY 35 billion to build infrastructure and public amenities, including 181 roads with a length of 204 km, underground pipelines of 627 km, four thermal power plants (nhà máy nhiệt điện), six water supply factories (nhà máy cấp nước sạch), a wastewater treatment plant (nhà máy xử lý nước thải), three sewage pumping stations, and 30 heat exchange stations. The 2018 Statistical Yearbook of Langfang City illustrates that the annual fiscal revenue increased to CNY 9 billion, and the fixed asset investment was approximately CNY 20 billion, and Gu’An achieved great success in terms of economic growth and urban development strongly promoted by the collaboration with CFLD.
By the way, The Journal of Special Jurisdictions, is looking for papers on these cities:
Although a relatively recent phenomenon in urban development, Chinese Contract Cities already cover 66,000 square kilometers and house tens of millions of residents. They host a wide range of businesses and have attracted huge amounts of investment. In cooperation, local government entities, private or public firms plan, build and operate Chinese contract cities. Developers obtain land via contracts with local government or long-term leases with village collectives and enjoy revenues generated from economic activity in the planned and developed community. Residents contract a management firm for housing and other municipal services. In that way, Chinese contract cities offer innovative solutions to urban finance, planning, and management challenges.
Bài trước: Nhận thức là một quá trình