Journey in Life: 03/15/16

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Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Công nghệ in 3-D sẽ phá vỡ ngành sản xuất

thay vì đặt thầu phụ sản xuất từng bộ phận ở các nước Đông Nam Á, rồi vận chuyển đến Trung Hoa để lắp ráp, rồi cuối cùng lại chuyên chở đến người tiêu dùng, giờ đây nhiều nhà sản xuất có thể sản xuất tại địa phương và chuyển sang just-in-time "Đúng sản phẩm - với đúng số lượng - tại đúng nơi - vào đúng thời điểm cần thiết",

sự chuyển dịch này sẽ loại bỏ chi phí vận chuyển và chi phí lưu kho, cũng như đối phó với vấn đề ngày càng tốn kém hơn là ăn cắp tài sản trí tuệ,

nền sản xuất sẽ quay trở lại các nước giàu, các nước Đông Nam Á mất cơ hội theo đuổi mô hình tăng trưởng dựa trên xuất khẩu, mối đe dọa lớn nhất là đối với tăng trưởng của Trung Hoa...

1 số ví dụ về in 3-D:

IBM developed a 3-D printer capable of printing microchips with nanometer resolution at a fraction of the cost of current manufacturing systems. At the other end of the size spectrum, large printers are producing cars, houses, and even five-story buildings.

UPS created a factory with 100 printers that accepts orders, prices them, prints them, and ships them in the same day from the adjacent UPS shipping facility.

Researchers at the University of Virginia have 3-D-printed a drone in a single day and by adding an Android phone made it autonomous — all for $2,500. ...If aspirations for greater printing speed are met, a factory with only 100 printers and sufficient raw materials could produce 10,000 such autonomous drones a day. Long-range air and undersea autonomous drones are being produced today, and manufacturers are competing hard to reduce the price. Thus naval and air forces will also be at risk from cheap, smart, long-range weapons.

3-D printing, married with artificial intelligence and robots, will disrupt manufacturing globally. It will radically alter who makes what where. Rather than subcontracting the production of components to Southeast Asia, shipping those components to China for assembly, and finally shipping them to consumers, many manufacturers will produce locally and switch to just-in-time production schedules. This shift will eliminate shipping and inventory costs as well deal with the increasingly costly problem of intellectual property theft. Local production will result in major reductions in the globalization of manufacturing and thus change the economic element of the global strategic environment. As manufacturing returns to rich countries, it will deprive the nations of Southeast Asia of the opportunity to pursue export-based growth. Perhaps the greatest threat is to Chinese growth. Even as its growth settles to a new, lower, normal, China struggles to shift from an export-based economy to a consumption-based one. If China cannot make the shift before the additive manufacturing results in localized manufacturing, it will suffer major negative impacts on growth.

Tiền mặt sắp biến mất khỏi Hàn Quốc

kế hoạch là đến năm 2020, tiền mặt mất dạng luôn,

ví dụ, nếu một người tiêu dùng mua một món hàng 9.500 won và đưa tờ 10.000 won, người đó sẽ được ghi có 500 won vào thẻ trả trước, thay vì nhận lại đồng xu 500 won,

theo điều tra của ngân hàng trung ương, mỗi người dân Hàn Quốc trung bình có gần 2 thẻ tín dụng và hơn 2 thẻ điện thoại di động...
The Bank of Korea is planning a “cashless society” by 2020. If a shopper buys a 9,500 won item and pays with a 10,000 won banknote, for instance, the shopper will be credited 500 won to his or her prepaid card instead of getting a 500 won coin in change.

The trends are indeed lining up:

According to a central bank survey, Koreans carry on average 1.91 credit cards, 2.03 mobile cards and 1.26 check or debit cards. Four out of 10 picked credit cards as the means of payment they use most, up from three out of 10 the previous year. The ratio of those picking cash, meanwhile, continues to fall.

As Koreans are carrying less cash, with the average standing at 74,000 won last year, down 3,000 won from the previous year, the central bank is also issuing less cash. It released 12.3 percent fewer 10,000 won banknotes last year from the previous year, while the issuance of 5,000 won notes dipped 5.9 percent and 1,000 won bills 3.7 percent.

The country is also sufficiently non-diverse that such a transition could be made without leaving many people without means of payment, in contrast to say the Louisiana Bayou.

Chính sách khuyến khích đổi mới sáng tạo ở Trung Hoa

lập các quỹ đầu tư mạo hiểm do Nhà nước tài trợ, số tiền cực lớn, huy động được 231 tỉ usd trong năm 2015,

tổng cộng 780 quỹ trên toàn quốc, phần lớn tiền hỗ trợ từ tiền thuế và các khoản vay do nhà nước bảo lãnh...

đây là số tiền lớn nhất trên thế giới dành cho các startup, gấp 5 lần số tiền các quỹ đầu tư mạo hiểm khác huy động trên toàn cầu.

The country’s government-backed venture funds raised about 1.5 trillion yuan ($231 billion) in 2015, tripling the amount under management in a single year to 2.2 trillion yuan, according to data compiled by the consultancy Zero2IPO Group. That’s the biggest pot of money for startups in the world and almost five times the sum raised by other venture firms last year globally, according to London-based consultancy Preqin Ltd.

The money’s in what are known as government guidance funds, where local and central agencies play some role. With 780 such funds nationwide and a lot of experimentation, there’s no set model for how they’re managed or funded. The bulk of their capital comes from tax revenue or state-backed loans.

If you are both impressed and worried at the same time, that is the correct reaction.

"Span-new" nghĩa là gì?

Photo courtesy Kārlis Dambrāns.

'Span-new' = brand new nghĩa là mới toanh (absolutely new, entirely new).

Ví dụ
To help users transfer data with more ease, we add once-click clone feature to our new AnyTrans, which simplifies the whole data transferring process. With a spankingly simple click, users are able to clone content from an old iPhone seamlessly to a span-new iPhone 6 (Plus).

If you won the lotto what would you buy first? One-way tickets home for all my family who are scattered all over the world. But I’d love to know what it’s like to drive a span-new car.

Phạm Hạnh

"Spick and span" nghĩa là gì?

Trước lễ hội, thành phố rất sạch sẽ. Photo courtesy William Murphy.

'Spick and span' nghĩa là gọn gàng, ngăn nắp và sạch sẽ (spotlessly clean and well looked after; neat, tidy, orderly, well kept, shipshape, in apple-pie order; immaculate, uncluttered, trim, spruce); và khi nói về người có nghĩa là bảnh bao.

Ví dụ
If people can keep their houses spick and span, there is no reason for them to litter (vứt rác bừa bãi) in public just because it is a shared space.

The previous resident has left owing more in unpaid service charge than the flat is worth. Now, spick and span, it will fetch, he hopes, £60 in rent a week.

If the rallies are organized for some VIP from the ruling party, the city looks spick and span for a day and artificial flower gardens spring up over night. The various roads are festooned (trang trí bằng hoa, kết thành tràng hoa) with party flags (cờ đảng) and colourful hoardings (biển quảng cáo), which lend colour to our drab (buồn tẻ, chán ngắt, xám xịt) and dull (đều đều, ứ đọng, trì chậm) city.

Phạm Hạnh

Bài trước: "How's life treating you" nghĩa là gì?

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