"Grinding poverty" nghĩa là gì?

"Grinding poverty" có grind là công việc cực nhọc đều đều -> từ này nghĩa là cảnh nghèo nàn thê thảm, nghèo cùng cực.

Ví dụ
Millions of small farmers (nông dân nhỏ) in Ivory Coast and Ghana, which together grow 60 percent of the world's cocoa, live in grinding poverty.

“In the old days, two maids (người hầu) and a gardener (người làm vườn) were employed to tend the vicarage (hoa lợi của linh mục). I am not prepared to go on seeing my wife trying to do the work of mistress of the house, mother and two maids, and, as a reward, suffer the privations (cảnh thiếu thốn) of grinding poverty.”

The underappreciation for business success can lead to support for policies, such as high taxes and excessive regulation, which can undermine the competitive market process. This is of deep concern because the competitive market process is responsible for driving entrepreneurial risk and investment into the innovations that have not only pulled humans out of grinding poverty, but have collectively raised our standard of living by over 3,000 percent, with most of the gains going to the poorest.

Phạm Hạnh

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