Journey in Life: 04/06/21

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Tuesday, April 6, 2021

"Megaphone diplomacy" nghĩa là gì?

Maria Oswalt on Unsplash

"Megaphone diplomacy" = ngoại giao phát thanh -> nghĩa là dùng phương tiện truyền thông quốc tế để đưa ra các tuyên bố, cảnh báo, thông cáo báo chí (mang tính đe dọa) nhằm ép đối phương tuân theo quan điểm của mình.

Ví dụ
Megaphone diplomacy and legal action between Britain and Brussels over a Northern Ireland trade dispute “will solve absolutely nothing”, a former secretary of state has warned.

“Putin said that despite everything there’s no point in playing at megaphone diplomacy and trading barbs (châm chọc). There is a point in continuing relations,” Peskov told reporters on a conference call.

Speaking in Parliament, Lord Murphy, who served as secretary of state under Tony Blair, said: “Legal action or megaphone diplomacy will solve absolutely nothing. “What is needed is proper (hợp lý) dialogue, proper discussion and proper negotiation and there is not a scrap of evidence that any of those things is happening.”

We state that Washington continues to practice "megaphone diplomacy", with the main goal to maintain a negative (xấu) image of Russia. To blame external players for destabilizing (làm bất ổn) the situation inside the country.

Ngọc Lân

"Hindsight bias" nghĩa là gì?


“Hindsight bias” = định kiến nhận thức muộn -> nghĩa là hiện tượng tâm lý cho rằng mình đã đoán đúng trước tình huống (sau khi sự việc đã xảy ra thế), ví dụ, sau khi giá chứng khoán lên thì nghĩ mình (cũng) đã đoán trước giá lên v.v...

Ví dụ
As it turned out, the pre-collapse (trước khi sụp đổ) peak on Feb. 19, 2020, was reclaimed by August 2020. The fastest 30% drop in history followed by such a rapid recovery was an indicator (chỉ dấu) that the bull market was far from over. This is not hindsight bias, but what we were discussing in real time as the market bottomed.

Those who say they saw this coming are guilty of hindsight bias, says Ritholtz Wealth Management’s Nick Maggiuli. Just days before stocks bottomed last March, he conducted (tiến hành) a Twitter poll asking how long it would take for the S&P 500 to hit new all-time highs. Most said it would take more than two years; only 11 per cent said it would be less than one year.

The Hindsight bias crowd is vocal about the 2020 United States elections and the January 6, 2021, Capitol attack. We should have seen it coming, they say, if only we’d monitored the correct news outlets, the internet, and conservative (thận trọng) media’s culture of outrage. I could have warned them, of course — I know the most American of all arts when I see it: the upside-down, funhouse-mirrored, wild-ride realities of carnivals (lễ hội).

Anh Thư

"Chinese whispers" nghĩa là gì?

Nguyễn Phúc on Unsplash

"Chinese whispers" = thì thầm kiểu tàu -> nghĩa là tin đồn sai sự thật.

Ví dụ
My idea was to send a story into the world, Chinese whispers style, to see how it could travel. So Gearoid told the story to Aisling, who told it to Cyril, and it started its journey (hành trình)…but did it stay the same?

It is a cliché (câu rập khuôn) that Italians talk all the time about what’s for dinner… and I love talking to my colleagues about what we’re cooking at home while we prepare restaurant meals. It might just be when we have our best ideas. Dishes are passed on like Chinese whispers, ever-evolving, but never new.

In these days of stay-at-home orders and people looking for things to do while sheltering (trú ẩn) in place, chalk up the “telephone game” (also known as “Chinese whispers”) as another activity many are involved in and playing.

Ngọc Lân

"Hit the airwaves" nghĩa là gì?

Sirisvisual on Unsplash

"Hit the airwaves" có airwave là sóng radio -> cụm từ này nghĩa là được quảng cáo, phỏng vấn trên sóng truyền hình. 

Ví dụ
Hi John, Thank you for interviewing Karl Wallinger: World Party has been one of my favorites since I was 17 and “Ship of Fools” hit the airwaves in Australia where I lived. I still have my original vinyl 🙂 The first time I saw you mention (nhắc tới) Goodbye Jumbo in one of your videos I thought “Wow, someone else remembers those records, so happy to see that!”.

The mating (con đực) calls of our feathered neighbours have hit the airwaves once again, but compared to last year, the songbirds are having to work harder at it.

Despite airing (phơi bày) all the way back in 2004, the show critiques many magical-girl tropes, just without the morbidity of, say, Madoka Magica, making many aspects of the series feel as fresh as the day it hit the airwaves.

"Once it hit the airwaves, we got so much attention to RIP Medical Debt. It just exploded," said Sesso. "I mean the website crashed, it was just really incredible."

Ngọc Lân

"See the colour of his money" nghĩa là gì?

金 运 on Unsplash

"See the colour of someone's money" = thấy (rõ) màu tiền -> nghĩa là phải chắc chắn rằng người mua có đủ tiền để trả thì mới bán hàng cho họ.

Ví dụ
So, Brexit Tories, let’s see the colour of your money. So far, Brexit has meant billions spent on new, trade-inhibiting customs facilities, a proposed US trade deal that will necessarily compromise (làm hại) food standards to make us ill and a slump (sụt giá) in inward investment.

“He wouldn’t contribute otherwise,” said Ahern. “Chuck didn’t like bureaucracies (quan liêu) very much. He wanted to see the colour of your money, like a businessman. He wanted to see that if he was doing something, it was a policy and it was a policy of the government and that it had the support at the top level.”

However, the new Sinn Féin Minister for Finance, Conor Murphy, wants to see the colour of his money. Putting the pressure (áp lực) back on Johnson, he said £2 billion would not be enough, while Foster said the Executive would hold Johnson “to his word” to deliver.

We did not see the colour of his money . . . we want to see clear commitments (cam kết) by the autumn [budget] to rail investment the north of England needs.

Ngọc Lân

"Beaten black and blue" nghĩa là gì?

Altin Ferreira on Unsplash

"Beaten black and blue" -> nghĩa là bị đánh nhừ tử, đến mức bầm tím cơ thể. 

Ví dụ
They allege (tuyên bố) that their daughter's face was swollen (sưng phồng) and she informed that after being abducted, she was tied to a tree in a jungle and was threatened to surrender. She was beaten black and blue at the Police station and assaulted with a lathi.

This is not the first instance (trường hợp) of someone being beaten black and blue on suspicion (nghi vấn) of stealing in Azadpur Mandi. Last August, a labourer was beaten to death by two truck drivers on the suspicion that he had stolen their cash. 

While the video of Mahi and Jogi has maligned (vu khống) the two of them, Jogi has been beaten black and blue at the jail. With Mahi’s grandfather is critical (nguy kịch) after going through a heart attack, Jogi is being pushed to a corner by her own family.

Bangladesh have been beaten black and blue here in the first T20I! Everyone expected the Kiwi pacers to do the damage but as it turned out, Ish Sodhi, the leg spinner, blew away Bangladesh's top order. 

Ngọc Lân

"Survivorship bias" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Karim MANJRA on Unsplash

“Survivorship bias” = định kiến sống sót -> nghĩa là hiện tượng tâm lý về việc chúng ta chỉ nhìn thấy những người thành công, và nghĩ rằng đó là cả câu chuyện, mà không tính đến những người khác cũng áp dụng cách thức tương tự nhưng thất bại.

Ví dụ
The difference in returns can be explained by higher survivorship bias, which is more extreme in some indices than others. Hedge fund managers tend to report returns to data providers only when performance has been great, which introduces a backfill bias as some providers allow the inclusion of past realised returns.

Sell high and buy low; how hard could it be? Well, over the long run, really hard, and there is a lot of survivorship bias in this arena. Even Warren Buffet said most people will do better with a low-cost index fund. Does that mean that you should not own certain stocks that you like? No, it just means that your core strategy should give you the highest probability (xác suất) of success based on historical data. 

Survivorship bias adjustments (điều chỉnh) introduce biases of their own and can distort (xuyên tạc) the assessment of manager skill, concludes a new white paper, Rethinking Survivorship Bias in Active/Passive Comparisons, from the Investment Adviser Association’s Active Managers Council (AMC). The study illustrates the limitations of survivorship bias adjustments, when used to assess active manager skill and suggests investors reconsider their methodologies to achieve a more accurate assessment of that skill.

Anh Thư

“Bandwagon effect” nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Ankush Minda on Unsplash

“Bandwagon effect” = hiệu ứng đoàn xe -> nghĩa là hiện tượng tâm lý mọi người “bắt chước” làm điều gì vì những người khác đang làm điều đó, bất kể niềm tin của họ ra sao; 'tâm lý bầy đàn'.

Ví dụ
I’ve long believed the problem has not been vaccine supply so much as an aversion(ác cảm) to the vaccine, which mirrors the aversion to masks in Arkansas. Governor Hutchinson shouldn’t have waited so long to open vaccinations to all. A bigger rush might have had a bandwagon effect, for one thing. But it also meant denying shots to people who REALLY wanted them. Who of them got sick? Or worse?

Consider the bandwagon effect: Half of Americans is a large proportion (tỷ lệ), but it may not be enough for a bandwagon. How decision makers define the “majority” also matters. Sometimes, we care what others in the country are doing; at times we care more about what people in our social networks or communities are doing. In minority communities or among Republicans, where hesitancy (sự do dự) rates are higher, the bandwagon may not have yet emerged. 

Lord Macdonald spoke after the national police spokesman on child protection, Simon Bailey, predicted that ‘rape culture’ claims would engulf (dìm xuống) the entire education sector. So far, more than 100 schools have been named in more than 8,000 anonymous testimonies (lời khai) on the Everyone’s Invited website. Is Lord Macdonald right to suggest that there is a danger of a bandwagon effect and to warn against social media campaigns ‘that may draw in all sorts of behaviour that is obnoxious and unpleasant but not criminal’?

Anh Thư

"Unconscious bias" nghĩa là gì?

chú chó cứng đầu...Photo by Vidar Nordli-Mathisen on Unsplash

“Unconscious bias” = định kiến vô thức -> nghĩa là những giả định, kỳ vọng xã hội trong suy nghĩ con người. Những thiên kiến này hình thành dựa vào những nhận thức từ bối cảnh xã hội, thái độ, văn hóa. Thiên kiến vô thức có thể xuất hiện dưới nhiều hình thức và đôi khi được coi là đồng nghĩa với định kiến hay cố chấp.

Ví dụ
Members of the Island’s six police departments will engage in (tham gia vào) an implicit and unconscious bias training May 4, 5, and 6. The training will be conducted on-Island by Hillard Heintze, a security risk management team based in Chicago. Originally scheduled for November, Island police chiefs moved the training to the spring amid COVID-19 concerns.

Let’s start with the easy bit. Unconscious bias is important. There is robust (mạnh mẽ) evidence (bằng chứng) that automatic mental associations (hiệp hội) about social groups impact our perceptions and decision-making and that people tend to hold more negative associations toward a variety of historically oppressed (bị áp bức) groups. This can have serious impacts on people’s lives.

These findings are surprising, considering 81% of companies already run unconscious bias training. This would suggest diminishing (giảm dần) confidence amongst talent leaders that unconscious bias training alone is enough to ensure fair, consistent and effective processes. Robert Newry, CEO of Arctic Shores, commented: “The BLM movement has amplified (khuếch đại) a long overdue awareness of bias and driven the need for action, so it’s encouraging to see companies saying they want to address issues of ‘gut feel’ and unconscious bias.

Anh Thư

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Firefighters (lính cứu hỏa) took more than two hours to put out the blaze (dập tắt đám cháy).

To air the operating rooms and protect everyone inside from smoke, firefighters used electric ventilators.

A group of eight doctors and nurses completed the operation in two hours before evacuating (sơ tán, di tản) the site, the emergencies ministry said.

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