Journey in Life: 07/06/20

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Monday, July 6, 2020

"Sink into despair" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Kinga Cichewicz on Unsplash

"Sink into despair" có despair là thất vọng, tuyệt vọng -> cụm từ này nghĩa là trở nên chán nản/nản lòng.

Ví dụ
Vitriol, anger and tribalism (trung thành với bộ tộc) are as common in today’s America as breathing. It’s easy to sink into despair, yet we need to retain (giữ lại, duy trì) standards of civility even when that anger is fully justified.

It is easy to get overwhelmed during a recession (suy thoái), to want to sink into despair. Your sense of self-worth is usually at its lowest during such times, and the Coronavirus hasn't helped matters much because it's meant that people are still largely cooped up (ở trong nhà) in their own houses with other family members, so personal dramas get amplified. The best thing that you can do is to focus on your strengths and to buttress your weaknesses.

Rather than sink into despair, or try to reproduce what he already had, he started from scratch and eventually bashed out a record in an eight-day blast of creativity.

Ngọc Lân

"Dull the edge of" nghĩa là gì?

Kinh doanh nhỏ lẻ dễ "chết" vì COVID. Photo by Nguyễn Khanh from Pexels

"Dull the edge of (something)" = làm mờ viền -> nghĩa là giảm bớt nghiêm trọng/hiệu quả hoặc bớt đi thú vị...

Ví dụ
But whatever hooks make their way into the album, they never dull the edge of the lyrics.

"These are much tougher to answer, but the gains in equities (vốn chủ sở hữu) over the past six weeks have been built on the idea that massive stimulus efforts will dull the edge of this crisis and promote a faster recovery," he said in a note to clients.

These payoffs were supposed to dull the edge of the protests and keep the capitalist (tư bản) system safe from pitchfork-wielding mobs (đám đông giận giữ). Oddly enough, they didn’t seem to be making much headway in light of the continuing worries about capitalist instability.

Hilton believes that many small businesses, weighed down by the debts incurred during lockdown, will go bust (phá sản). Or, if they survive, he said, they’ll face a far more challenging economic climate in the future. The massive intervention by the state — pumping hundreds of billions into supporting businesses and jobs — means that big government and much heavier regulation are on the way, and that will, inevitably, dull the edge of enterprise.

Thu Phương

"Be on the ragged edge" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by @joagbriel from Pexels

"Be on the ragged edge" = trên lề/rìa gồ ghề -> nghĩa là ở vị trí/tình huống vô cùng khó khăn, nguy hiểm.

Ví dụ
The cars are still absolutely on the ragged edge and, as we know all too well from the events of last year’s Grand Prix weekend, it remains as dangerous as always.

“We know for a lot of businesses are right on the ragged edge at this point,” he said. “Timeliness is in line with what we’re hearing about the needs of small business owners so that timing is a very positive thing.”

The effects of the Covid-19 lockdown have in general seen most folk on the ragged edge when it comes to keeping a cool disposition. But none more so than those who have had to wait in long – sometimes very, very long – queues.

Looking at forecast models, it appears showers are more likely, but amounts are questionable. An unusual atmospheric river of moisture will be steaming toward Vancouver Island. We will be on the ragged edge Saturday and Sunday. I hate these scenarios.

Thu Phương

"Not move a muscle" nghĩa là gì?

Một ngày đẹp trời để nằm ườn và không làm gì cả Photo by Andrea Piacquadio from Pexels

'not move a muscle' nghĩa là không làm gì, không động tay chân, đặc biệt trong tình huống cần sự giúp đỡ; không cử động.

Ví dụ
“Whatever you do, don’t splash – do not move a muscle.” The spine-tingling trailer for BLACK WATER: ABYSS has arrived, ahead of its theatrical release across the UK and Ireland from Friday 10th July, from Altitude.

When Kirk assented (tán thành, đồng ý), Dad ordered the brother in the passenger seat to stay there and not move a muscle “like I’d have done if he’d been armed and wanted for a violent felony,” Kirk said.

Through the bottom grille (lưới sắt) of the metal gate, Aaron peered at the road. It was 11 am in the morning and the sun shone brightly above his head. Yet, he did not move a muscle. A few minutes later, he spotted a familiar face walking towards his house.

Next came sleep paralysis (mất khả năng điều khiển cơ thể, mất cảm giác). Scary! Basically, I was awake but could not move a muscle, nor speak. Shockingly, every time this gripped me, I would see a Grand Prix race car, driven by Walt himself, trying to run me over. He never did; must have run out of gas.

Bích Nhàn

"The ebb and flow of" nghĩa là gì?

Trồi sụt thất thường. Photo by David McBee from Pexels

"The ebb and flow (of something)" nghĩa là sự tăng giảm đều đặn về cường độ, thường xuyên dao động, trầm bổng của điều gì.

Ví dụ
The dollar is turning firmer against the rest of the major currencies bloc again as we see the ebb and flow continue to play out in the risk mood during European morning trade.

"I do think it's going to ebb and flow a little bit. I think we've seen even in the first couple of days of camps around Major League Baseball that it's ebbed and flowed," Kapler said. "I don't think anybody really saw some of the announcements today coming. In particular, I think the David Price news was news."

We’d been ticking up on the optimism scale. I think that the approach that I’m taking to this is that I think that’s part of the ebb and flow of the virus. Obviously, my hope is that maybe, as people start looking at the masking and the social distancing again, and all of the precautions, and kind of understanding or maybe recommitting to the seriousness of this that we’ll see it flatten out.

Thu Phương

"Be at a low ebb" nghĩa là gì?

Xin đừng để thua nữa. Photo by Julius Holstein from Pexels

"Be at a low ebb" nghĩa là ở trong tình trạng sút kém, đang trong thời kỳ suy sụp.

Ví dụ
He had nowhere to go. He was desperate and at a low ebb. In exchange for somewhere to live he rented the property and looked after the plants.

The Cobblers were at a low ebb when the 56-year-old took over in October 2018, struggling at the wrong end of the division following relegation (xuống hạng) from League One.

The YMC told the tribunal (tòa án) that the quality of life issues affecting citizens are often relegated to the background and the day-to-day maintenance is at a low ebb often left to junior people to sort out.

Warren Gatland's Chiefs will now sink into next week's bye with confidence at a low ebb, having lost four matches in succession (liên tiếp). No one predicted they would go backwards in at such a rate of knots.

Thu Phương

"Sink to new depths" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Ashley Jurius on Unsplash

"Sink to new depths" = chìm xuống bề sâu mới -> nghĩa là hành xử theo cách tồi tệ hơn trước.

Ví dụ
“The government has sunk to new depths in order to shift blame from their own incompetence (kém cỏi),” said Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, the chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party.

If even the kids are fair game, this country has sunk to new depths for which we should be ashamed. Stanford University law professor Pamela Karlan was trying to be clever when she said President Trump “can name his son Barron, but he can’t make him a baron (ông trùm).” Barron Trump is 13.

You’d be surprised at how many of these guys actually exist, although pros are pretty good at spotting them. They sink to new depths to get signatures, sending kids to do the dirty work for them.

Ngọc Lân

"Force down your throat" nghĩa là gì?

Phải uống hết một lần thì cũng hơi... Photo by Castorly Stock from Pexels

"Force/ram/shove something down someone's throat force" nghĩa là nhồi, ép buộc ai phải nuốt xuống hoặc ép buộc ai chấp nhận hoặc chịu đựng, đồng ý điều gì.

Ví dụ
Despite what history books force down your throat, war is not an honorable professional.

I was allowed to sit in the exam room before the others were allowed to enter, and in addition to my fountain pen, I was allowed to bring in some water and my glucose tablets—the only things I was able to force down my throat.

What difference does it make , in the true spirit and very reality of the thing, what real difference, I say, does it make whether you force down your throat more food than you want by means of a glass of wine, or by means of a long stick , as they cram (nhồi nhét) Norfolk turkeys?

320 million people will fall into total control of their own government because they will hold the ace of spade (át bích) on your life. It is a prize that would be worth forcing down your throat rather you like it or not. Then on top of that they will force those same 320 million people to play by the rule.

Thu Phương

"Clear your throat" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash

"Clear (one's) throat" = làm sạch cổ họng -> nghĩa là hắng giọng, ho (để lấy hơi trước khi phát biểu).

Ví dụ
Coughing is another common symptom, but it’s not just any cough. “It’s not a tickle in your throat. You’re not just clearing your throat. It’s not just irritated (kích thích),” Schaffner explained.

This is not a baseball “season.” A Major League Baseball season is 162 games. An ESPN story found four World Series winners who were below. 500 after 60 games. Sixty games is the professional baseball equivalent of clearing your throat.

Peter Gulick hasn’t been feeling 100% for quite some time. You can hear it in his voice. “I’ve got congestion (tắc nghẽn),” he says in a phone interview. “I’m clearing my throat a lot. I’m bringing up phlegm (đờm). I have a cough, but the cough is very infrequent.”

“Just breathing (exhaling) does release moisture from your lungs – think of when you breathe out onto a pane of glass (ô cửa kính),” he said. “Also, during the act of normal breathing, you might clear your throat, laugh, or sigh. Would there be as many droplets (giọt nhỏ), and potential microbes (vi khuẩn), spread as by coughing and sneezing? Probably not, but it is possible there could be some.”

Thu Phương

"Accede to pressure" nghĩa là gì?

Chèn nhau quá lại ăn đủ. Photo by SpaceX from Pexels

"Accede to pressure" = chịu áp bức-> nghĩa là cúi đầu hạ mình hoặc chịu sự chèn ép từ bên ngoài (thường liên quan đến chính trị, quân sự).

Ví dụ
The defense minister (bộ trưởng bộ quốc phòng) indicated India would proceed with its missile (tên lửa) programs and refuse to accede to "pressure" from the United States.

In these types of situations, teachers, librarians, or administrators may accede to pressure without any "incident" being registered. Perhaps more ominously (đáng ngại), school personnel may initiate removals on their own, either to deter (ngăn cản) perceived threats or to impose their own values and orthodoxies (chính thống) on the educational process.

If other countries are forced to observe Ameraca's stringent (nghiêm ngặt) standards concerning youth sexuality, why should the United States not accede to pressure from its European allies (đồng minh) and suppress (ngăn chặn) so-called hate speech and extremist propaganda (tuyên truyền cực đoan) on the Net, even though such expressions are protect under the U.S Constitution?

Thu Phương

"Leave a sinking ship" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: insung yoon on Unsplash

"Leave a sinking ship" = rời con tàu đắm -> nghĩa là rời khỏi tình huống thất bại ngay trước mắt.

Ví dụ
“If people wish to leave a sinking ship, should the BJP be blamed for it?” asked BJP spokesperson Nalin Kohli. “With regard to the petition (đơn xin), the EC is a constitutional (thuộc hiến pháp) body, it will adjudicate (phân xử) on law and not on the basis of what Congress desires and does not desire.”

Taking a dig (đào sâu) at those who have recently left the party and joined other parties, Union Minister Nitin Gadkari on Sunday said that rats are the first to leave a sinking ship.

That was one of my toughest (khó khăn) times as a footballer because you’re seeing the club you love go down. With all the fans and everything, you know how much it means to you and to them. Of course it’s tough. You want to take the club back again. You don’t want to just leave a sinking ship.

Ngọc Lân

"Sink through the floor" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Priscilla Du Preez on Unsplash

"Sink through the floor" = chìm xuống dưới sàn -> nghĩa là cảm thấy rất xấu hổ; "muốn độn thổ", "muốn chui xuống đất" đó các bạn.

Ví dụ
The uncertainty (không chắc chắn) caused by the general election has led business confidence to sink "through the floor", according to a lobby group.

After a brief attempt to regain control, I ushered (chỉ dẫn) my motley crew out of the auditorium (phòng cho thính giả), wishing I could just sink through the floor and disappear. This wasn’t the first time I'd lost the battle with my children's unruly (ngỗ ngược) behavior. And I felt like the worst mom ever.

What parent doesn't want to sink through the floor after their toddler (con nhỏ) drops a four-letter word (câu nói bậy) in front of company? Want to avoid this in your family? Good parenting means using the kind of language you won't mind your children repeating.

Ngọc Lân

"Live within means" nghĩa là gì?

Cứ tiêu tiền đi vì đời ngắn lắm!! Photo by: 🇨🇭 Claudio Schwarz | @purzlbaum on Unsplash

"Live within means" -> nghĩa là không tiêu nhiều hơn số tiền bản thân có.

Ví dụ
However, to avoid these devastating scenarios, learning to live within means is one practical way of doing this. When they say austerity (khắc khổ), it has to be for everyone. There should be no sacred cows.

He said it was not necessary for him to purchase (mua) new shoes for the pre-budget announcement and that it is a time to live within means.

Our colleges have to learn to live within means and have given them the money and investment to freeze tuition (học phí). For me, that was how I could plan for college.

Ngọc Lân

"On the throne" nghĩa là gì?

Mời bạn ngồi lên chiếc "ngai vàng" nhỏ xinh. Photo by Christa Grover from Pexels

"On the throne" nghĩa là ngồi lên ngai vàng, cai trị vương quốc. Từ lóng nghĩa là ngồi lên bồn cầu/đi cầu.

Ví dụ
For now, he stretched (dãn cơ) and went to the bathroom. While reigning on the throne, he hypnotically (thôi miên) stared at the role of toilet paper on the wall.

As the curtain rose, one spotlight focused on a commode sitting on top of a platform in the center of the stage. Steps led up to the throne. Toilet paper was on the handle.

Justin-The 4th, succeeded his father Evergetes on the throne of Egypt, and received the surname of Philopator, by Antiphrasis, because, according to some historians, he destroyed his father by poison.

Some thought he could not die: his conquests (chinh phạt) during his twelve-year reign had been more godlike than mortal (phàm trần). It was even whispered he was the son not of Philip - his predecessor (người tiền nhiệm) on the throne of Macedonia.

Thu Phương

"Succeed to the throne" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Pro Church Media on Unsplash

"Succeed to the throne" nghĩa là nối ngôi.

Ví dụ
Prince Ying Hu Hai is a kind and sincere person. He may succeed to the throne. Think about it and tell me your decision.

For the last king was Zedekiah, and he, as I have said, was the uncle; so that the whole royal seed were cast off (loại bỏ), for no one after this time ever succeeded to the throne.

"But, Agesilaus," declared Leotychidas, “the law prescribes (quy định) that it is not a brother of the king who should succeed to the throne, but a son. Only in the event of there being no son could a brother succeed."

At his father's death he found that Artaxerxes had been chosen to succeed to the throne, and when he had come to Pasargadae to witness his brother's coronation (lễ đăng quang), he narrowly escaped death on a charge of conspiracy (thông đồng).

Thu Phương

"Acceded to the throne" nghĩa là gì?

Tìm người lên ngôi. Photo by Europeana

"Accede to the throne" nghĩa là lên ngôi (vua), làm vua.

Ví dụ
Bentešina had acceded to the throne of kingship in the land of Amurru, but my brother Muwattalli removed Bentešina from the throne of kingship of the land of Amurru. He took him to Ḫatti.

According to Shiji (1:44), at the age of thirty Yao chose Shun, and at the age of fifty Shun assumed the duties of the Son of Heaven; at the age of sixty-one, when Yao passed away, Shun acceded to the throne.

The boy-king Edward III acceded next to the throne, which was for many years controlled by his mother and her lover, who was a man that was eventually hanged for the execution (hành quyết) of little Edward's father.

After his death, his son Atabek bin S'ad Zangi acceded to the throne and it was during his tenure (nhiệm kỳ) that Baghdad was annihilated (tiêu diệt) by Hulagu Khan. He had accepted to give tribute to the Mongols and survived.

Thu Phương

"Between you, me and the bedpost" nghĩa là gì?

Bí mật nhé. Photo by Andrea Piacquadio from Pexels

"Between you, (and) me and the bedpost/lamppost/gatepost" hoặc "between you and me and these four walls" nghĩa là (câu chuyện riêng tư) chỉ có hai ta biết với nhau thôi. "Bedpost" là cái cột giường.

Ví dụ
The only thing I want to keep between you, me, and the bedpost is how much I hate moving furniture.

Just between you and me and the bedpost, we know I didn't have pneumonia (viêm phổi). My body's tired.

Between you, me, and the lamppost, I think I could have gotten ahold of one of Butcher’s fastballs and hit it on top of my Aunt Lois’ coal camp house.

This number was never an issue until I became a mom. Never. Between you, me and the bedpost, Mr. Grey could barely keep up with me back in the day. But like everything else in life, things shift whenever we enter a new phase (yay, parenthood).

Thu Phương

Các chú tuổi gì

mà đọ với anh, ở đây là china,

tq trợ cấp doanh nghiệp (đất rẻ, vốn rẻ) và bảo hộ để thống trị thị trường thiết bị bảo hộ (trong đợt dịch này, cũng như nhiều năm về sau), các nước khác cũng lao vào xây dựng nhà máy, nhưng ko có cửa, sẽ lỗ sặc gạch...
Alarmed at (báo động bởi) China's stranglehold (bóp chặt, thắt chặt; sự bóp nghẹt, sự kiểm soát kiên quyết (làm cho cái gì không thể tăng trưởng hoặc phát triển được thích đáng); thòng lọng) over supplies of masks, gowns, test kits and other front-line weapons for battling the coronavirus, countries around the world have set up their own factories to cope with this pandemic and outbreaks of the future.

When the outbreak subsides, those factories may struggle (cố gắng vất vả, vật vã) to survive (tồn tại). China has laid the groundwork to dominate the market for protective and medical supplies for years to come.

Factory owners get cheap land (đất rẻ), courtesy of the Chinese government. Loans and subsidies (trợ cấp tài chính) are plentiful. Chinese hospitals are often told to buy locally (người tq dùng hàng tq), giving China's suppliers a vast and captive market.

Once vaccines emerge, demand will plummet. Factories will close. But Chinese companies are likely to have the lowest costs by far and be best positioned for the next global outbreak.

Bài trước: Lỗi tại ai?

Chiếc đinh cuối cùng

Trump đặt dấu chấm hết cho american empire...

by steven durlauf, hat tip to quoc-anh do,
This is the most depressing (buồn nản) Independence Day of my life. I have never felt less confidence in the United States.

The inability of this country to generate a competent (thạo, rành, khá) response (phản ứng) to COVID-19 is the obvious reason. Trump's catastrophic (thảm họa) mishandling (quản lý tồi, giải quyết hỏng) is the main failure, but be it NY and NYC on nursing homes, or the idiocy (hành động ngu si, lời nói ngu ngốc) of governors and state legislatures from Florida to Texas to Wisconsin, government failure has occurred at all levels.

Blaming this society-wide disaster (thảm họa toàn xã hộ) on leaders is too easy. When a large fraction of the population regards mandatory use of masks as a civil liberties issue, the failures are those of the people. Refusal to wear a mask is an act of selfishness and should be stigmatized. I am stunned by the number of Facebook postings where people claim those who do not wear masks should be respected as a matter of choice and personal freedom. That is the freedom of child, not a citizen. The transformation of this society from one that fought World War II and achieved the moon landing to one that is incapable of collective action on a *pandemic* is shocking. Trump is an incompetent, a demagogue, and a fool, but the fact that public opinion has not overwhelmingly repudiated (khước từ, từ bỏ, từ chối, thoái thác) his leadership over COVID-19 is a mark of an unvirtuous (không có đức, không đạo đức; không tiết hạnh, không đoan chính) nation. The Western Europe versus US comparison in the Figures speaks volumes. And of course, the successes of Taiwan, South Korea, Japan and New Zealand put the US to shame.

The aftermath of the George Floyd murder and aftermath is a source of some limited optimism. Most important, public opinion has dramatically shifted in favor of Black Lives Matter and in terms of recognition of the extent of discrimination (phân biệt đối xử) and racism (phân biệt chủng tộc) in 2020. It speaks well of the public that the great majority of the public has not conflated demonstrators and looters. There have been valuable symbolic changes, the removal of confederate statues, renaming of buildings, respect given to athletes who have stood up to oppose injustice.

But I am pessimistic about deeper structural change. The police riots that have occurred during the unrest could not have done a better job of demonstrating the need for a root and branch transformation of law enforcement, starting with a wholesale turnover of much of the current police force, the end to police unions in their current form, end of the militarization of police, and fundamental changes in the rules for the use of force. Hard to envision a path where this occurs.

I think that history will look back and see the Trump administration as the turning point in the long run decline of the American Empire. Trump himself is a latter-day combination of Commodus and Septimus Severus. We are becoming worthy of some future Edward Gibbon. Gibbon attributed the decline and fall of the Roman Empire to the decline of civic virtue, an old fashioned idea. I think it has the ring of truth today.

Nửa đời về sau

shared from fb phạm phương,
Photo by Vlad Sargu on Unsplash

1. Nửa đời về sau, hãy học được cách trầm tĩnh.

Có đôi khi bị người khác hiểu lầm, đừng tranh luận. Trong cuộc sống, có rất nhiều chuyện đúng sai khó có thể nói rõ ràng, thậm chí căn bản là không có hoàn toàn đúng hay hoàn toàn sai.

2. Nửa đời về sau, hãy trở nên bình thản.

Con người đến độ tuổi nào đó, tự nhiên không còn thích những gì ồn ào náo nhiệt, tâm thái bình thản giúp cho cơ thể khỏe mạnh, kéo dài tuổi thọ. Mặc kệ là đời sống vật chất dư dã hay bần cùng, chỉ cần nội tâm bình thản, chính là sống một cuộc đời hạnh phúc.

3. Nửa đời về sau, hãy học cách cúi mình.

Bạn bất đồng ý kiến với với con cái, nói chuyện mâu thuẫn với bạn bè, những điều này cũng không sao cả.

Lúc này bạn cũng có thể về lau nhà... Trong lúc lao động, bạn sẽ nhận ra tâm trạng và suy nghĩ của mình dần lắng xuống.

4. Nửa đời về sau, hãy đừng cảm thấy hối hận.

Cuộc đời là một con đường dài với vô số ngã rẽ, và ta luôn phải lựa chọn không ngừng. Không có cơ hội nào lặp lại, lựa chọn rồi thì đừng hối hận, cũng đừng nói câu muốn làm lại từ đầu.

5. Nửa đời về sau, hãy tiếp tục học tập.

Đọc sách xem báo, hội họa, ca hát, nghe nhạc... đều có thể đem đến cho cuộc sống niềm vui, khiến cho tâm tình khoan khoái dễ chịu.

6. Nửa đời về sau, hãy giữ gìn sự đơn thuần.

Suy nghĩ quá nhiều, ngược lại càng làm cuộc sống thêm phức tạp, "đơn thuần" thật ra chính là một ân huệ mà trời cao ban cho chúng ta. Cảm nhận mùi thơm của hoa trái, nhận ra niềm vui của vận động, cùng bạn bè nói chuyện không đâu...

7. Nửa đời về sau, hãy luôn ăn mặc đẹp.

Yêu cái đẹp nên là điều mà chúng ta theo đuổi cả đời, tuyệt đối đừng vì suy nghĩ mình lớn tuổi mà không muốn trưng diện nữa.

Hãy nhân lúc lưng còn thẳng, chân còn khỏe, hãy mặc thật xinh đẹp...

8. Nửa đời về sau, đôi lúc hãy ngờ nghệch một chút.

Có những chuyện, cần hờ hững thì hờ hững, điều gì không làm rõ được thì không cần làm rõ, người nào cần lướt qua thì cứ lướt qua. Nếu như chỉ biết nhớ không biết quên, chỉ biết tính toán mà không biết cho qua, chỉ biết khôn khéo mà lại không biết vụng về… sẽ chỉ làm cuộc sống của chúng ta luôn nặng nề, phiền não.

9. Nửa đời về sau, hãy thường xuyên chúc phúc cho người khác.

Chúng ta đối đãi với người khác thế nào, họ cũng sẽ đối đãi với ta như vậy. Cho nên, hãy thường xuyên khen ngợi bạn bè, con cháu của mình, thậm chí cả người xa lạ cũng đừng tiếc một lời chúc phúc! Khi bạn làm cho người khác vui vẻ, bạn sẽ nhận ra rằng mình còn được nhân lên niềm vui.

Defenestration nghĩa là gì?

shared from fb phan lặng yên,
the action of throwing someone out of a window: hành động ném ai đó qua cửa sổ
the action of dismissing someone from a position of power or authority: loại/thải hồi ai khỏi vị trí quyền lực

𝟮. Tuy có gốc gác Latin đàng hoàng, de- rơi xuống + fenestra cửa sổ, nhưng Defenestration không xuất hiện tự nhiên mà ra đời từ một sự kiện cụ thể. 1618, người Tin lành Bohemian bất mãn ném hai viên quan nhiếp chính của Thánh chế La Mã cùng viên thư ký qua cửa sổ lâu đài Praha. Rơi từ độ cao 21m nhưng cả ba sống sót "như một phép màu" hay "nhờ rơi vào đống phân", tùy phe nào kể lại. Sự kiện này châm ngòi thùng thuốc súng căng thẳng sẵn làm bùng phát Chiến tranh 30 năm. Cuộc chiên thảm khốc này cướp đi sinh mạng của khoảng 1/3 người Đức, phần nhiều vì dịch bệnh và đói khát. Xung đột Công giáo - Tin lành sớm biến chuyển thành cuộc chiến giữa Pháp-Habsburg, nước Pháp Công giáo đứng cùng phe Tin lành chống đối thủ Habsburg. Kết thúc sau 30 năm khi các bên đều tiêu điều kiệt sức. Habsburg suy yếu, Bourbon Pháp và Thụy Điển vươn lên; Hà Lan độc lập khỏi Habsburg TBN sau 80 năm nổi dậy, bước vào kỷ nguyên vàng son; chế độ phong kiến châu Âu suy giảm nhường chỗ cho quân chủ tập quyền, ở Thánh chế thì hơi ngược lại. Trước đó tròn 200 năm, 1419 dân Praha làm một vụ ném tương tự, cũng dẫn đến chiến tranh, đánh dấu xung đột tôn giáo (tiền-Tin lành) chuyển từ tranh luận sang hành động.

𝟭. Thực ra tiếng Anh từng có từ ngày mốt - overmorrow, hôm kia thì ereyesterday, nhưng từ xưa đã ít dùng, giờ thì mất hẳn, cùng với mấy từ hay ho yesternight, yesteryear. Tiếng Việt thì khá 'đầy đủ' nhưng hơi lộn xộn vùng miền. Đếm lùi thì dễ: hôm qua, hôm kia, (hôm kìa). Còn đi tới thì miền Bắc: ngày mai → ngày kia; trong Nam lại: ngày mai → ngày mốt → ngày kia | ngày tê | ngày mốt nữa.

vì ai mà một nước Anh mệt mỏi, kiệt quệ vì thế chiến... Photo by Arthur Osipyan on Unsplash

Ví dụ
In 1966, Mao commenced his “Cultural Revolution”, which is a polite way (cách lịch sự) of describing (miêu tả) a barbaric (dã man, man rợ) and seemingly mindless defenestration of the flower of Chinese society. It was a genocide (giệt chủng) of intellectuals (người trí thức), artists (nghệ sĩ), authors (nhà văn) and anyone with the mildest of political opinions.

As the scientists vented their anxieties about their colleague’s defenestration — and the unrelenting pressure (áp lực không ngừng nghỉ) and scrutiny (xem xét kỹ lưỡng) that comes with advising the government during a once-in-a-century pandemic — they were urged to seek out “pastoral support” from a new member, Ian L. Boyd, according to minutes of the deliberations.

“You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is victory, victory at all costs.” That victory, as Charmley has argued, resulted in the dissolution (tan rã, phân hủy, giải tán) of the British Empire, and more immediately if less consequentially, in Churchill’s own defenestration by the war-weary British electorate in the elections of 1945. No wonder that not everyone was equally impressed by his oratory (hùng biện). The Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies remarked of Churchill during the World War II: “His real tyrant is the glittering phrase, so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way.”

Phạm Hạnh

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