Journey in Life: 04/18/20

Saturday, April 18, 2020

"Hit the right chord" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: freestocks on Unsplash

"Hit the right chord" = đánh đúng hợp âm/dây thanh âm -> nghĩa là hoàn toàn phù hợp, hợp lý, chạm đúng nọc, nói đúng tâm lý; gãi đúng chỗ ngứa.

Ví dụ
Recently, she has launched a web series titled Break A Leg. It was one of the first series where the dance was mixed with comedy (hài kịch) and style. The first season hit the right chord with the audience and was a huge hit.

Land Rover’s new Defender seems to have hit the right chord with many enthusiasts (người đam mê) thanks to its combination (kết hợp) of modern tech and off-road ability. But with bakkies becoming more popular in markets around the world, some fans are asking for a load-lugging variant.

What can be considered ironical (mỉa mai) in the prevailing (nổi tiếng) situation is the fact that Modi's Mann Ki Baat had hit the right chord with the nation, this time.

Ngọc Lân

“MBS” khắc họa hình ảnh Thái tử Ả Rập Saudi trẻ tuổi, quyền lực và cực kỳ tàn bạo

bài bình sách của Christopher Dickey

nguồn: NYTimes,

Lan Phương dịch,

MBS
Đường tới quyền lực của Mohammed bin Salman
tác giả Ben Hubbard

Trong trang cuối “MBS”, cuốn sách khắc họa bức chân dung chi tiết và đáng lo ngại về thái tử Ả Rập Saudi Mohammed bin Salman, tác giả Ben Hubbard thừa nhận rằng, dựa trên những điều tìm hiểu được trong quá trình làm phóng
sự về người nắm thực quyền điều hành vương quốc và cách mà đám thuộc hạ tàn nhẫn của ông ta truy sát kẻ thù của ông chủ, ông “đã tự hỏi, khi đi bộ về nhà lúc nửa đêm hay thiu thiu ngủ, liệu chúng cũng bám theo tôi”.

Điều này nghe có vẻ cường điệu, nhưng bất kỳ ai đọc câu chuyện tường minh và thuyết phục của tác giả sẽ thấy nỗi lo đó hoàn toàn hợp lý. Và ta có thể chạy đi đâu nếu bị thái tử bất ngờ tấn công? Chắc chắn không phải tới chính quyền Mỹ nơi tin rằng M.B.S. đã hạ lệnh giết hại và xẻ xác Jamal Khashoggi, nhà báo của tờ Washington Post, năm 2018 nhưng lại bỏ qua cho ông ta.

“Rất có thể thái tử biết về sự việc bi thảm này — có thể anh ta làm, có thể không!”, Tổng thống Trump, người luôn lập lờ nước đôi về những sự thật không như ý, phát biểu. “Nước Mỹ”, ông tiếp tục, “dự định vẫn là đối tác kiên định của Ả Rập Saudi để đảm bảo lợi ích của đất nước chúng ta.” Trong đó, lợi ích quan trọng là các thương vụ mua bán vũ khí trị giá hơn một trăm tỷ đô-la.

Tác giả Hubbard, người đứng đầu văn phòng tạp chí New York Times ở Beirut, viết nên câu chuyện về đường tới quyền lực của Mohammed bin Salman trong bối cảnh

"Gather round" nghĩa là gì?

Từ ngày thực hiện giãn cách xã hội thì chẳng còn hình ảnh này nữa. Photo by Andrea Piacquadio from Pexels

"Gather round/around" nghĩa là tụ họp (mọi người) lại, tập hợp, kéo đến.

Ví dụ
The show harkens back (quay trở lại) to simpler times when friends would gather round the turntable (đầu đĩa than) and immerse (hòa mình) themselves in music and conversation (trò chuyện).

Adults and children gathered around the handcuffed (bị còng tay) woman as she was taken to a police van by two officers wearing face masks, in Warwick Estate, shortly after 5pm on Thursday, April 15.

Artists (nghệ sĩ) from the upcoming Rising Tides exhibition (triển lãm) gather round the virtual table to discuss the role of artists in the face of climate change (biến đổi khí hậu) and social upheaval (biến động xã hội).

Canada Post workers gathered around St. Michael’s Hospital Thursday, honking their horns (bấm còi) as a way of saying thank you to frontline healthcare workers (nhân viên y tế tuyến đầu) helping in the battle against the coronavirus pandemic (đại dịch).

Thu Phương

"Gather from" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by bongkarn thanyakij from Pexels

"Gather (something) from (someone or something)" = thu thập cái gì từ ai -> nghĩa là học hỏi được điều gì hoặc suy luận được điều gì.

Ví dụ
It is not the role of grievance (phàn nàn) arbitrators (thẩm phán) to impose (áp đặt) their own views on management (quản lý) or labor (lao động), but to gather information from the express terms of the contract (hợp đồng) and "from the common law of the shop".

The only argument (tranh luận), so far as I can gather from the cases, against the earlier decisions, with respect (tôn trọng) to lands, is the incongruity (phi lý) and absurditys (vô lý) of giving a different construction (công trình) to the same words, used in different clauses (điều khoản) of the statute (quy chế).

This sense of vocation (thiên hướng) seems first of all to have been recognised (công nhận), as we gather from the Bible (Kinh thánh) story, in connection with what we should call political changes (thay đổi chính trị), - the migration (di cư) of Israel from Egypt and the establishment (thành lập) of an independent political community (cộng đồng chính trị độc lập).

Thu Phương

"Pick up the gauntlet" nghĩa là gì?

Chúng tôi sẵn sàng đương đầu với mọi tình huống! Photo by Anna Shvets from Pexels

"Pick/take up the gauntlet" có tự "gauntlet" nghĩa là bao tay sắt. Cụm từ này nghĩa là nhận lời thách đấu, lời mời thi thố, chấp nhận thử thách...

Ví dụ
In the video, posted on FC Ural’s Twitter account on Thursday, Pogrebnyak is seen saying that he “has picked up the gauntlet from Ronaldo”, before getting down to the crunches (kêu răng rắc).

The authorities knew how dire (khốc liệt) the situation in the mainland (đại lục) would get when the virus is spread to other provinces if swift (nhanh) action like locking down the entire Hubei province has not been taken. Sacrificing (hy sinh) Hubei people’s freedom temporarily has a much lower opportunity cost (chi phí cơ hội) than imperilling (làm nguy hiểm) millions of Chinese’s lives. They decided to take up the gauntlet and proved that they were right.

To give hope and provide respite (nghỉ ngơi) to citizens in times of need, religious organisations (tổ chức tôn giáo) have often take up the gauntlet by rising to the occasion. In discharging the church’s Christian Social Responsibility (CSR), the Founder/Senior Pastor of the Dunamis International Gospel Centre, Dr Paul Enenche, had moved swiftly to donate equipment (quyên góp thiết bị) and other essentials (nhu yếu phẩm) towards improving healthcare delivery services for the people.

Thu Phương

"The penny dropped" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Michael Longmire on Unsplash

"The penny dropped" = đồng xu rơi xuống -> nghĩa là cuối cùng cũng hiểu, nhận ra vấn đề.

Ví dụ
The penny dropped one day when I was giving them a break, and I gave them bowls of fruit, grapes and strawberries. I was on the phone at the same time, trying to do everything, when I heard this strange sound behind me. I turned around and Naoise, who’s one, was choking (nghẹn). His eyes were rolling, and his face was turning red and purple.

“All I could think of on my way home from another busy shift was, what can I do to help my fellow colleagues, to boost their spirits and to help morale (tinh thần) across the hospital,” she said. Then the penny dropped. As an avid rugby fan, Ms Mithcell decided to reach out to Irish rugby players on Instagram to see if they would have a moment to send her on a video of support for her colleagues.

In these exceptional times you cannot juggle everything, he said. "At the beginning when the schools closed, I put myself under pressure (áp lực). I didn't know what to do. I had no time for myself nor the kids. "Then the penny dropped. I stopped working and since then it's going a lot better," he said.

Ngọc Lân

"A crow to pluck" nghĩa là gì?

Chia sẻ để thấu hiểu nhiều hơn thay vì giữ vấn đề trong lòng. Photo by Retha Ferguson from Pexels

"A crow to pluck" = một con quạ cần vặt lông -> nghĩa là một vấn đề cần thảo luận, suy xét. "Have a crow to pluck with" cũng có nghĩa là bất đồng quan điểm với ai.

Ví dụ
If you've got a crow to pluck with me, Daniel, or your father, that's one thing, but you don't have to spite (chọc tức) some nice old woman who was trying to coax (vỗ về) you into a better mood.

And everyone has a crow to pluck, even an open university in Prayagraj, nee Allahabad.
“I've a crow to pluck with you,'' used to be a phrase in our house when someone had something they needed to get off (thoát khỏi) their mind.

39 -year-old Epiphanius seems to be an ideal candidate (ứng viên lý tưởng): 1) he has never been a member of the Moscow Patriarchate (Thượng phụ) and didn't initiate the schism (ly giáo); 2) didn't have a crow to pluck with MP hierarchs (tổng giám mục) and is ready to start the OCU history from scratch; 3) studied at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.

Thu Phương

"A lot of pluck" nghĩa là gì?

Họ vẫn sống tốt mặc hoàn cảnh khó khăn. Photo by Yogendra Singh from Pexels

"A lot of pluck" hoặc "plenty of pluck" nghĩa là rất can đảm, gan dạ, can trường.

Ví dụ
He had a lot of pluck continuing in his condition.

If Horatio Alger's newsboys (cậu bé bán báo) and bootblacks (người đánh giày) could do it with a little luck and plenty of pluck, a hobo (kẻ lang thang) and ex-con (kẻ mới ra tù) might do as well.

Knowing that southern whites share the tradition (truyền thống), it takes a lot of pluck to argue that fried chicken has been cooped up (nhốt) in the black church and, consequently (do đó), black culture.

My mother – whose name was Agness, like mine – came from a little money and a lot of pluck. My father, Cornelius, was a merchant (thương gia). So we were what you Americans would have called, middling class (tầng lớp trung lưu). In Ireland we called it just plain lucky.

Thu Phương

"Overstep the mark" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by:  Tom Sodoge on Unsplash

"Overstep the mark" = bước quá vạch -> nghĩa là hành xử theo cách không thể chấp nhận được, 'vượt lằn ranh'.

Ví dụ
Messages sent via Messenger see a higher open rate, and can enhance (tăng cường) connection with your audience in a more intimate(thân mật) communications channel. You do need to approach messaging with a level of caution, as it can be easier to overstep the mark when connecting with consumers via message.

We would also overstep the mark but whether it was deliberately (thận trọng) or if it was stupidity, we just wanted to win at every turn – we would have blues at training because we wanted to win.

Meanwhile in Neath, South Wales, the same device ordered people back into their homes. But critics have said police needed to be careful not to overstep the mark with their new powers.

Ngọc Lân

"Huff and puff" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Jaco Pretorius on Unsplash

"Huff and puff" nghĩa là thở hổn hển; nghĩa khác là cư xử, nói theo cách cho thấy kịch liệt phản đối.

Ví dụ
The hope is that despite the president’s bombastic (khoa trương) nature (bản tính), he will huff and puff and then let the governors lead, as he should.

You should work at an intensity (cường độ) that makes you huff and puff, but at which you could still hold a short conversation with someone next to you.

Stop by the visitor centre for some of the best vantage points including O'Brien's observation tower, known as the highest point of the cliffs (vách đá). You won't even have to huff and puff your way to the top.

Ngọc Lân

3 câu hỏi ông Tập cần trả lời thế giới

giáo sư Niall Ferguson ở viện Hoover, đại học Stanford, hỏi rằng:

1. điều gì thật sự đã xảy ra tại vũ hán: nếu xuất phát từ dơi tại chợ động vật hoang dã mà tq ko đóng cửa (và ko lý giải được tại sao), thì đã đủ tệ hại rồi; còn nếu do bất cẩn ở trung tâm phòng chống và kiểm soát dịch bệnh ở vũ hán, thì còn tệ hơn nữa; thật điên rồ khi nghiên cứu bất kỳ căn bệnh nào có thể lây từ thú sang người (zoonosis) có thể gây tử vong như coronavirus ở siêu đô thị lớn như vũ hán,

2. chính phủ trung ương đóng vai trò lớn như nào trong việc che đậy sau khi rõ ràng ở vũ hán có sự lây truyền từ người sang người,

3. sau khi rõ ràng có dịch bệnh lan rộng từ vũ hán sang phần còn lại của tỉnh hồ bắc, vì sao chỉ ngăn chặn đi lại từ hồ bắc đến phần còn lại của tq (ngày 23/1) nhưng ko ngăn từ hồ bắc đến phần còn lại của thế giới?
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In Liu Cixin’s extraordinary science-fiction novel The Three-Body Problem, China recklessly (một cách vô trách nhiệm) creates, then ingeniously (khéo léo, tài tình) solves, an existential threat to humanity (mối nguy diệt vong đối với nhân loại), by establishing contact with the planet Trisolaris and then thwarting a Trisolaran invasion.

I remember thinking it was an odd plot structure when I read it last year. This is not how sci-fi plots work in western literature. The bad guys (the Germans, the Russians, the Chinese, or just the aliens) do bad stuff and then the good guys (they speak English) save the world. One of the many things I learnt from reading the novel is that, in this respect as in so many others, China is different. It’s okay for China to sicken the world in order to save it.

...Now, I don’t expect straight answers to these questions, any more than we got straight answers from the Soviet Communist Party after Chernobyl.

...China’s problem, like Russia’s before 1991, is the One Party Problem. And so long as a fifth of humanity are subject to the will of an unaccountable (không chịu trách nhiệm giải trình), corrupt (tham nhũng, tha hóa) and power-hungry (đói khát quyền lực) organization with a long history of crimes (tội ác) against its own people, the rest of humanity will not be safe.

Covid-19: cần đảm bảo một thị trường cạnh tranh

như sau thế chiến ii, đánh thuế mạnh vào phần lợi nhuận vượt trội so với mức tiền chiến, để đảm bảo ko doanh nghiệp nào quá hưởng lợi khi cả nước đang thiệt hại,

và cần khảo sát sức khỏe chung các lĩnh vực khác nhau, đảm bảo có sự cạnh tranh lành mạnh chứ ko bị thống trị bởi một vài doanh nghiệp (may mắn) xoay xở vượt qua khủng hoảng,
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...A third lesson is to monitor market competition, or the lack of it. A common complaint in the first half of the 20th century was that war conditions (điều kiện thời chiến) were particularly favorable (rất thuận lợi) to monopolization (độc quyền): Certain companies were either favored by the state or well placed to take advantage of the war effort, and many smaller firms struggled, eventually being bought out by larger ones with deeper pockets. We can see similar trends unfolding in this crisis: Companies such as Amazon, Netflix, Facebook, and Zoom find themselves providing the goods and services that are necessary at the moment, while others, typically smaller businesses without the financial wherewithal to stay afloat, are in trouble through no fault of their own. During the First and Second World Wars, excess profit taxes, levied on profits above prewar levels, were used to make sure no company benefited disproportionately at a time of great national suffering. We shouldn’t just consider using these taxes again, but, in time, we should also survey the general health of different sectors, checking that they are still characterized by healthy competition, rather than dominated by a lucky few who have managed to survive.

Covid-19: cần đánh giá lại và đúng nhiều nghề nghiệp

có bác sĩ nói bệnh nhân đi gặp messi/ronaldo để họ chữa bệnh cho,
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We should see a transformation (biến đổi hoàn toàn) in the way we view certain types of work, as well. The Second World War catalyzed (gây xúc tác) a shift in women’s treatment in the labor market, and this crisis may similarly force us to address another working-world flaw: the gap between the great social value of so many jobs, and the comparatively small market value (in the form of a salary) that they receive. In Britain, for instance, labeling doctors, nurses, care workers, social workers, teachers, criminal lawyers, and others as “key workers” betrays a two-fold irony: Though these roles are key (and have been for some time), that status is in many cases not reflected in their pay; and some of them are precisely the sorts of so-called low-skilled workers that post-Brexit immigration controls would keep out. In some countries, narrowing this gap will be easier: In the U.K., for instance, the state is the main employer for these particular jobs. It could swiftly narrow the difference between their social value and their market value, should it want to.

Covid-19: nên đọc gì khi bị cách ly?

cuốn 'Crisis and Leviathan' nhé, (theo gợi ý của giáo sư kinh tế Donald Boudreaux tại đại học George Mason)

ý rằng: trong khủng hoảng, chính phủ (tranh thủ) lấy/tự cho mình thêm nhiều quyền hạn hơn, kiểm soát người dân, và khi khủng hoảng qua đi, thì những quyền đó ko mất đi đâu (bộ máy tuyên truyền sẽ nói rằng luôn cần vì nhỡ khủng hoảng quay lại),
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Donald Boudreaux agrees with me (Arnold Kling) that this is the right time to dust off (phủi bụi, lấy khỏi giá sách và đọc) Crisis and Leviathan.

Typically, the quantum of additional powers granted to – or seized by – government during each crisis shrinks somewhat when the crisis passes. Normal times, after all, aren’t crisis times. But never do such additions to state power fully disappear. Government’s exercise of these powers is perceived (được cho là, coi là) as having been key (chìa khóa) to escaping the crisis (vượt qua khủng hoảng) – so such powers become more widely regarded as being beneficial (phần đông rộng rãi coi là có ích/có lợi). Fear of such powers is lessened.

The fact that this happy perception of the consequences of such powers is, at least to some degree, always an illusion conjured by the propaganda (bộ máy tuyên truyền) that government officials inevitably deploy to justify (biện minh) their exercise of their new powers is irrelevant. If people believe that this new grant of power and that new expansion of authority as used by government officials were both effective and necessary to the nation’s escape from Armageddon, people naturally lose some of the skepticism they had, pre-crisis, about such power and authority.

A sad possibility is that the process consists of government becoming stronger, people becoming more sheep-like (người dân như đàn cừu), government becoming stronger, etc.

2 mục tiêu tối quan trọng cần nhớ để học tại nhà hiệu quả

1. Dạy con những điều chúng cần biết để trở thành người lớn tự lập, kể cả khi những môn/điều đó không mang lại sự hào hứng (ví dụ: tập trung vào môn toán, nhiều công việc tốt cần kỹ năng toán giỏi; đọc và viết, đừng quá quan trọng con phải đọc/viết gì, gì cũng được, miễn là chúng thích).

2. Cho con một tuổi thơ hạnh phúc (nghỉ ngơi nhiều hơn, ra ngoài chơi nhiều hơn, lên tầng thượng chung cư ngắm ốc sên :).
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The foremost question for any homeschooler is: What are you trying to accomplish? My answer is twofold:

1. Teach kids what they need to know to become self-supporting adults, even if it isn’t fun.

2. Give kids a happy childhood.

In pursuit of goal #1, I focus heavily on mathematics. Why? Because most good jobs in the modern world require strong math skills, and very few kids like math enough to learn it on their own. I also mandate reading and writing – but I don’t especially care what they read or what they write about. Indeed, the best route is if they read and write whatever excites them most.

In pursuit of goal #2, I give kids ample breaks, a long lunch (at cheap restaurants in healthy conditions), and plenty of outdoor time. If there’s any academic subject outside math, reading, and writing that they enjoy, I energetically support them. But I don’t burden them with any additional mandatory work – not even economics. I naturally encourage kids to consider the possibility that they might change their minds, but I don’t push.

Gấu với Putin

ả rập saudi trong cuộc chiến giá dầu với nga, sắp trở thành con nợ trong tương lai gần, kể cả khi giá dầu quay trở lại mức trên 80 usd/thùng,
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Take the net financial assets held by Saudi Arabia's government — central bank reserves, plus sovereign wealth fund assets, minus government debt. These declined to just 0.1% of gross domestic product from 50% over the four years through 2018 as crude plunged from levels of around $100 a barrel at the end of 2014. The kingdom is now likely to be a net debtor for the foreseeable future, even if prices rise back above $80.

Over the same four years, net financial assets held by the six Gulf monarchies fell by around half a trillion dollars, to around $2 trillion, according to a study last month by the International Monetary Fund. Even if peak oil demand doesn't hit until 2040, that remaining sum could be depleted by 2034, according to the Fund. Oil at $20 a barrel would run it down even faster, emptying the coffers as soon as 2027.

With oil prices in the range of $50 to $55 a barrel, Saudi Arabia's international reserves would fall to about five months of import coverage as soon as 2024, according to an IMF report last year. That should be a deeply alarming prospect, bringing the kingdom within months of an unthinkable balance-of-payments crisis (khủng hoảng cán cân thanh toán không thể tưởng tượng được) and the abandonment of the dollar peg (từ bỏ việc neo tỷ giá theo đồng đô-la), which has underpinned the global oil trade for a generation. Yet the prices we're now seeing make this look almost like an optimistic scenario.

Thời gian ơi xin dừng lại

hoạt động kinh tế/ thương mại đã dừng, nhưng đồng hồ tài chính ko ngừng quay, tiền thuê nhà, điện nước, lãi vay v.v... 

-> cần phải stopped để doanh nghiệp thở được...
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Much of the U.S. economy is now shutting down to fight the coronavirus pandemic. Restaurants, bars and many other businesses that rely on people gathering are closing across the nation. Social distancing and local orders to shelter in place are cutting foot traffic, which will hit every retail store hard except for some that sell food and other essentials. Those shutdowns (phong tỏa) will ripple through (gợn sóng lăn tăn, rì rào khẽ lay động) the economy as consumption drops. The U.S. is looking at a plunge (lao xuống, đâm sâu/đâm ngập vào) in output that, at least in the short term, will make the 2008-09 crisis pale in comparison.

In theory, a partial economic shutdown doesn’t have to cause long-term damage. After the danger of the pandemic ends, U.S. workers can go right back to what they were doing before -- eating in restaurants, walking into stores -- and economic output will go right back up.

But the economy isn’t defined only by real activity; it also is made up of a web of financial obligations (nghĩa vụ tài chính). People owe rent, utilities, student-loan payments, auto payments, mortgage payments, property taxes and many other monthly bills even if they’ve been laid off or furloughed. Companies owe debt-service payments, rent and so on. As economist Larry Summers puts it, “economic time has been stopped, but financial time has not been stopped.”

Bài trước: Tiền đâu ra mà cho

Tiền đâu ra mà cho

covid-19 xảy ra, nền kinh tế đã thay đổi, phát sinh những nhu cầu mới, ví dụ các trung tâm tổ chức sự kiện, hội nghị giảm, còn thiết bị bảo hộ cá nhân tăng, phải một hai năm mới quay lại "bình thường cũ",

chính phủ cứu trợ, thì là vay mượn (từ bộ phận làm ăn tốt (thiết bị bảo vệ cá nhân), chuyển cho bộ phận làm ăn kém (tổ chức hội nghị)) hoặc in tiền, đều ko thể mang lại việc làm cho họ (tùy thuộc vào tình hình dịch bệnh), và chỉ dẫn tới lạm phát mà thôi,

đừng trông mong chính phủ như bà đỡ, lên gác phủi bụi lấy ra rương vàng và phân phát, chi tiêu của chính phủ là lấy (từ đâu đó), không phải là cho (ko thể cho cái mà (ngay từ đầu) ko có)
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People want to believe that government is their rich uncle. Uncle Sam just walks up to the attic, dusts off some of his fabulous wealth, and gives it to us. Try to erase that notion from your mind and pay attention.

A friend of mine does marketing for major events at Capital One Arena. Well, there is not much demand for that these days. Meanwhile, there is excess demand for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The economy’s job is to shift resources from producing events at Capital One Arena to producing PPE. Maybe we’ll reach a point in a year or two where resources should shift back.

...We have resources that are in the wrong place, like workers waiting to get jobs back at Capital One Arena when what we need is help producing PPE. More borrowing or money-printing isn’t going to make the Capital One Arena jobs come back–that depends on what happens with the virus. To the extent that more stuff isn’t produced, the borrowing or printing is just going to raise demand for what is produced.

My main point is that it is more accurate to think of government spending as taking, not as giving. You can only give if you have something to give in the first place. The government does not have valuable production to give. What the government does is take.

Quan hệ xã hội thay đổi hậu Covid-19

coi trọng thời gian ở bên nhau hơn, đến được với nhau là rất quý, (vd: đặt lịch gặp 1 tuần mỗi 6 tháng, bỏ hết công việc...)

còn ko online hết, hạn chế tiếp xúc,

alo, rảnh ko, qua phòng trao đổi tí
-> thôi, có gì nói luôn qua điện thoại đi :)
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When we come out of this, I expect people will value in-person even more, but not in the sense that we’ll spend more time with each other in-person but rather that we put it on more of a pedestal (bệ tượng). It’ll be treated with a lot more reverence (kính trọng, tôn kính) and importance, which means it’ll be a strong signal to choose to spend time physically with someone when you could more easily spend time virtually. It’ll feel more important but also more scarce (hiếm hoi) and special (đặc biệt).

I’ve seen a preview of this with my team, which was already almost all remote before this anyways. We spend less time physically with each other since we’re all working from different cities, but when we are together we are more focused on “making the most of it”. The one week every six months we’re together, we’re very careful to use the time to get to know each other, choosing to deprioritize real work those weeks. This means that the way we relate to each other is very intentional (rất có chủ đích) and self-conscious (tự ý thức), rather than more of an organic growth of the relationship that happens by just having each other ambiently in the background all the time. It works well, and over the course of working with them over time I’ve come to feel extremely close to them. But it means that everything had to be much more explicit, and that we’ve had to do extra work to develop our own new norms rather than getting to default to what’s normal. That said, this has major perks too, because we get to reinvent as we go along!

Covid-19: vì sao nước Mỹ thiếu khẩu trang?

một phần là do thiếu vốn lưu động (các nhà sản xuất ko được nhận tiền tạm ứng ngay, với lượng đặt hàng lớn như vậy, tăng, ví dụ, 20 lần) và không tăng được giá, theo Ryan Peterson - tgđ Flexport,
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Typically, buyers of PPE, whether hospitals or medical distributors, expect to place purchase orders and only pay for products upon delivery, or even later.

But when demand surges by 20x, vendors simply don’t have the money required to scale production (gia tăng sản xuất). Factories need money to add production lines, buy raw materials, and hire workers. They need down payments (tiền tạm ứng, ứng trước, trả trước) so they can move.

Buyers prefer to pay upon receipt of goods for two reasons. The first is to ensure quality: They can refuse payment if the goods they receive don’t meet their standards. The second reason is they prefer to keep cash on their balance sheets, rather than paying vendors in advance.

In ordinary times, sellers will accept this. But with the entire world desperate (tuyệt vọng) to buy PPE, manufacturers know they can ask for a down payment and get it. Other more aggressive entities are paying down payments, so if US buyers won’t, they don’t get the supply.

American medical distributors (nhà phân phối thiết bị y tế), governments, and even hospital chains (chuỗi bệnh viện), by contrast, have been less willing, or less able, to adapt to the new reality of paying vendors upfront (tạm ứng), at higher prices than they’d contracted.

At the same time, US distributors can’t pass higher prices through to hospitals in the midst of the crisis, for fear of being accused of profiteering (trục lợi). Foreign governments and healthcare systems have been less encumbered (làm lúng túng, trở ngại, vướng víu) by this, showing a willingness to pay more and pay faster to get first in line.

Hậu Covid-19: nền kinh tế thế giới biến đổi ra sao?

toàn cầu hóa đảo ngược (rút lui khỏi thương mại toàn cầu, chuyển hướng sang các khối thương mại khu vực và các công ty sẽ chú trọng hơn vào việc xây dựng nguồn cung cứng dự phòng trong mạng lưới cung ứng của họ),

một nền kinh tế thế giới với Mỹ là trung tâm đã sụp đổ, Trung Quốc trỗi dậy và nước Mỹ hướng về chủ nghĩa dân tộc (những công nghệ/nguồn lực quan trọng, năng lực sản xuất dự phòng sẽ được đặt ở Mỹ trong trường hợp khủng hoảng, ví dụ dược phẩm và thiết bị y tế...).

...đồng đô la Mỹ ngày càng củng cố vị thế vững chãi của mình tại trung tâm của hệ thống tài chính toàn cầu.
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...France’s finance minister (bộ trưởng tài chính) directed (chỉ đạo) French companies to re-evaluate (đánh giá lại) their supply chains to become less dependent on China and other Asian nations. U.S. Customs and Border Protection has said it will seize (tịch thu) exports (hàng xuất khẩu) of certain medical supplies (hàng y tế). And on Friday, Senator Lindsey Graham suggested that the United States should punish China for failing to contain the virus by canceling debt the Chinese government owns — a step that would risk the role of U.S. Treasury bonds as the bedrock of the world financial system.

...toward the dollar’s becoming even more entrenched at the center of the global financial system.

The U.S. Federal Reserve has opened swap lines with 14 overseas central banks — which enables them to pump dollars into their domestic banking systems — and started a novel program that lets other countries obtain dollars by pledging Treasury bonds as collateral. Those moves are helping ensure that a global dollar shortage (sự thiếu hụt đô-la toàn cầu) doesn’t paralyze (làm tê liệt) the world economy (nền kinh tế thế giới).

...“The dollar system is inherently unstable, but so is a bicycle,” said Mr. Tooze, the historian. “They’re unstable, but if you’re a skilled rider of them, they’re great. And the Fed has demonstrated it’s a skilled rider of the dollar hegemony (bá quyền đồng đô-la) bike.

"Father figure" nghĩa là gì?

Một người đáng tin cậy hơn ai hết. Photo by Luis Quintero from Pexels

"Father figure" nghĩa là hình tượng người cha, người lãnh đạo, thủ lĩnh, người đứng đầu (có tuổi, có tín nhiệm). 

Ví dụ
I think he has been a real father figure for all of us, even the big stars and stuff, so I really enjoy playing under him. 

Maybe what the kid needed was someone to step in and fill the void (khoảng trống) left by his father. Maybe what he really needed was a father figure. 

Retired (đã về hưu) Crew Commander Russell Hamilton - who spent 25 years saving lives with the service - was described as a "father figure" to those at his Stewarton station. 

“You think for one minute it’s all right,” father of four Steve Legge, in Bath, UK, said through tears. “Well, it’s not all right. It’s real. It’s bloody real. You need to stop.” Legge believes the only place his father figure could have contracted (mắc phải) COVID-19 was at the supermarket right before lockdown. 

Thu Phương

"Mother Carey is plucking her chickens" nghĩa là gì?

Một chút lãng mạn mang tên tuyết. Photo by Lisa Fotios from Pexels

"Mother Carey is plucking her chickens/goose" = chim hải âu đang nhổ lông. Cụm từ này nói đến hiện tượng tuyết rơi. Từ thời xa xưa, các thủy thủ coi những chú chim hải âu nhỏ (mother carey's chickens) mang đến điềm báo thời tiết xấu.

Ví dụ
Snow snow! Mother Carey's plucking chickens, I suppose.

It had started to snow. The flakes (bông tuyết) were over the windscreen (kính chắn gió) and the wipers (cần gạt) were pushing back so heavily that the car hardly moved. 'Mother Carey is plucking her goose,' said the driver.

This was that a ship off the beach with snow on her riggings foretold (báo trước) a wreck (xác tàu chìm) with loss of life or a war. The Donegal fisherfolk (ngư dân) regarded a marine (trên biển) snowfall as Mother Carey plucking her chickens.

As the hours wore on, Mother Carey plucked her chickens in greater numbers until the town was wrapped (bao phủ) in a thick, flattering blanket which lay on everything from the tower (tòa) of Paul's to the tip of Abraham's beak where he sat, hunched (cúi lưng) and motionless (bất động) above Blackfriars.

Thu Phương

"A Dear John letter" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Kate Macate on Unsplash

"A Dear John letter" = lá thư gửi John -> nghĩa là lá thư cô gái gửi bạn trai nói lời chia tay.

Ví dụ
I started forming (hình thành nên) the words in my head for a Dear John letter while fighting back the tears I had for this man’s family. I. Can. Not. Do. This. I step outside and feel the cold sting of the rain on my face, snapping me out of my momentary panic. I. Can. Do. This.

After meeting with the author (tác giả) of a Millennial Etiquette Guidebook, Liza decides that she doesn’t want to just ghost (ám ảnh) Josh, so decides to write a Dear John letter instead. He changed her life, but she needs to let him go, she writes.

In a narrative (kể chuyện) sense, Alex's goodbye is understandable. Izzie leaves him with a Dear John letter, then eventually sends him divorce (ly hôn) papers.

Ngọc Lân

"Mother of pearl " nghĩa là gì?

Xuất sắc. Photo by Javon Swaby from Pexels

"Mother of pearl " là dạng vật chất mịn, óng ánh bên trong vỏ các loài động vật thân mềm như hàu, bào ngư... thường dùng để trang trí, đây cũng là chất tạo thành ngọc trai.

Ví dụ
Additionally, there is a stainless steel (thép không gỉ) version, a red-gold, and a two-tone steel and red-gold version that come with a mother-of-pearl dial (mặt số) and diamond-set indexes (chỉ số).

"The tiny stretched air bubbles (bong bóng khí) captured within the translucent plastic (nhựa trong suốt) reflect light, resulting in an iridescent glow (sáng óng ánh nhiều màu) resembling mother of pearl," he added.

One call to AutoLeitner, a Dutch exotic-car dealer (phân phối) in Alkmaar, northwest of Amsterdam, and this stunning mother-of-pearl-white example could be yours— providing you have the necessary $2.32 million asking price, of course.

It was also recorded that our early pre colonial (tiền thuộc địa) weavers (thợ dệt) used shells (vỏ sò), mother-of-pearl discs, coins, glass beads (hạt thủy tinh) obtained from Chinese traders (thương nhân), as well as embroidery (trang trí) to enhance their wardrobe, especially the ceremonial vestments (lễ phục).

Thu Phương

"Mother tongue" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Pressmaster from Pexels

"Mother tongue" nghĩa là tiếng mẹ đẻ.

Ví dụ
In Tibet, it's a crime to even talk about the value (giá trị) of mother-tongue education (giáo dục).

Born on the Portuguese-speaking island of Sao Tome and Principe, and having spent his formative (hình thành) years in Benfica's academy, the 21-year-old is naturally fluent (thông thạo tự nhiên) in his mother tongue but was also taught English to a very high standard (tiêu chuẩn cao).

When asked by Greek City Times what Romeika means for her identity (bản sắc) and culture (văn hóa), she explains that it is everything because it is her “mother tongue.” “Romeika is actually my identity. Because Romeika was spoken as the mother tongue in the village where I was born and grew up, and I grew up speaking this language. I even thought the world language was Romeika. Everything that made me, my childhood, my culture, was shaped by Romeika. My first love story is Romeika,” Tanrıkulu explained.

Thu Phương

"Nearest and dearest" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Tyler Nix on Unsplash

"Nearest and dearest" = gần nhất và thân nhất -> nghĩa là bạn thân hoặc thành viên trong gia đình.

Ví dụ
Sobering Saturn now calls for less speculation (suy đoán) and more consolidation (thống nhất) of resources. This message may be frustrating, but a temporary slowdown is inevitable during these difficult times. If you’re going to spend anything this month, make sure it’s just some “quality time” with your nearest and dearest.

Yes, it’s another Monday, ’Runners, but there’s incentive (khuyến khích, khích lệ) in the day to live your best life. To start off, it’s National Scrabble Day, so while on your break, grab your mobile device and play a virtual game with a friend across town or across the country, or go at it old school and seek out your board game to play with your nearest and dearest at home.

Why not send us some pictures of what you and your nearest and dearest have been up to during the lockdown (đóng cửa, phong tỏa) and tell us your story?

Ngọc Lân