Journey in Life: 04/25/20

Saturday, April 25, 2020

"Bread and circuses" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Becky Phan on Unsplash

"Bread and circuses" = bánh mì và những trò vui -> biểu thị cho những nỗ lực hoặc trò mèo, mồi nhử nhằm đánh lạc hướng khiến dòng người đang bất mãn quên đi. Khái niệm này xuất phát từ thời La Mã cổ đại, khi nhà cầm quyền phân phát bánh mì miễn phí cho người dân, đồng thời bày ra những trò vui như cho nô lệ đấu nhau đến chết để mua lấy sự ủng hộ của họ.

Ví dụ
“Give them bread and circuses and they will never revolt (làm loạn).” This ancient Roman political axiom (chân lý chính trị), like many things, is being upended in the age of COVID-19. In Israel, nearly all of the enjoyable entertainment “circuses” the public is accustomed (thường lệ) to enjoying over the Passover holiday have been outlawed (cấm) due to the need to socially distance (giãn cách xã hội) and prevent the virus' spread.

Collectively, by aligning (sắp xếp) private and social objectives (mục tiêu), these approaches (tiếp cận) would not only encourage (khuyến khích) stay-at-home behavior, but they would reduce compliance costs (chi phí thích nghi) and help prepare a workforce to bounce back once the pandemic has passed. This is about more than just biding (chờ đợi) time at home. This challenging situation requires a modern take on “bread and circuses,” a strategy (chiến lược) to keep people safe at home while putting bread on the table.

Bread and circuses is a useful phrase to keep in mind that can easily be used for any populist policies (chính sách dân túy) round the globe, if not here. The coronavirus spread proved that many countries, including the richest and most powerful ones, do need to get better governance (quản trị), especially in reinforcing (củng cố) their healthcare systems. The virus also showed that it is capable (khả năng) of making people go out of their minds within minutes and turn them into circus performers in the maddest (điên rồ nhất) circus ever.

Thu Phương

"Bread always falls on the buttered side" nghĩa là gì?

Mặt bánh mì được quết bơ thì nặng hơn nên sẽ úp xuống khi rơi. Photo by Ravi Kant from Pexels

"Bread always falls on the buttered side (down)" = bánh mì luôn rơi xuống ở mặt phết bơ -> nghĩa là việc gì có thể sai thì sẽ sai/ khi một việc đi sai hướng, kết quả tồi tệ nhất có thể xảy đến.

Ví dụ
Thirdly, as a passenger transport (vận tải hành khách) industry we must not assume (cho rằng) we have always got it right, or that we are always right. Mr. Wood quoted Murphy's law earlier - or rather part of it - that the piece of bread always falls buttered side down.

Bread always falls buttered-side down. The sentiment (quan điểm) is that if something unlucky can happen, it will. It also known as “Murphy’s law”, supposedly named after an American aerospace engineer (kỹ sư hàng không) in the 1940s who managed to put everything back to front in something he was fixing. Most people know it more simply as “sod’s law”.

Bread always falls on the buttered side — unless you happen to be an inmate (tù nhân) of the Maricopa County prison system. A group of 38 prisoners convicted (bị kết án) of burning American flags that were hanging in their cells now must survive on rations (khẩu phần ăn) of only bread and water as punishment (trừng phạt) for torching (đốt) Old Glory, with no butter or jam to go on top.

Thu Phương

"Know which side your bread is buttered on" nghĩa là gì?

Cu chọn bố hay mẹ? Photo by Gustavo Fring from Pexels

"Know which side your bread is buttered on" = biết bánh mì của mình được phết bơ ở phía nào -> nghĩa là biết rõ phía nào có lợi cho mình.

Ví dụ
People don’t have cats Bryan, Cats have people. Rose has you and a very successful and fortunate (may mắn) cat she has turned out to be. Cats know which side their bread is buttered on; their lives depend on it , all nine of them.

The biggest carnage (tàn sát) involved the tie. At one point it had been backed as high as 80.00 while, on that final green, it traded at just 1.12. Tiger the hero or villain (nhân vật phản diện), depending on which side your bread is buttered.

I don’t think all people from over the border think that way although this kind of sentiment (ý kiến) has a way of spreading. How long do you think most of your businesses would stay open without the cash flow (dòng tiền) from Queens land. You know, all the restaurants bars shops etc you get to enjoy. Byron Bay for example. Could the resident population (cư dân) pay enough for all thoes to stay open. Have a think about what side your bread is buttered on.

Thu Phương

"A breadandbutter letter" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by John-Mark Smith from Pexels

"A bread-and-butter letter" = lá thư bánh mì và bơ -> nghĩa là thư/lời nhắn cảm ơn (tới chủ nhà).

Ví dụ
There was no reason to think it was the same man, except for that one detail, the letters he wrote, like 'bread and butter' letters after a party or a visit.

This book started, quite unashamedly (không xấu hổ), as a great big thankyou to the US of A. It was the breadandbutter letter that I had been meaning to write for many years.

This would be a breadandbutter letter from Clementine or James. With pleasure, she pulled out the typed sheet. It was typed, but there was something odd (kỳ lạ) about its appearance (vẻ ngoài). Her mind skimmed (lướt) over that, and she began reading.

Son: "Mother," said Marjorie, the next day, "what is a bread-and-butter letter?"
Mom: "Why, dearie, that's a sort of a humorous (hài hước) term for a polite (lịch sự) note of acknowledgment (tạ ơn), such as one writes to a hostess after making a visit."
Son: "Yes, that's what I thought. So I'm going to write one to Mrs.Geary."

Thu Phương

"Daily bread" nghĩa là gì?

Cơm áo gạo tiền, không tự nhiên rơi từ trên trời xuống. Photo by Ronê Ferreira from Pexels

"(One's) daily bread" nghĩa là miếng cơm manh áo, miếng ăn hàng ngày.

Ví dụ
You could will yourself as a slave (nô lệ) to earn your daily bread without dignity (nhân phẩm) or hope, or you earned your bread as a man who commanded respect (khiến người khác phải kính trọng).

Instead of frantically (điên cuồng) worrying about money, he will give his children a good example of praying about money and his daily bread, and publicly giving thanks for God's provision (cung cấp).

He who is supplying (cung cấp) that daily bread through them. And nothing is greater than the sense of liberation (tự do) which such a practical life of faith (đức tin) provides. The secular (trường kỳ) man works for his daily bread.

When seen engaged on his farm, which is his daily employment (công việc), and necessarily followed to obtain his daily bread, you cannot distinguish (nhận ra) him, by the appearance (vẻ ngoài) of his dress, from any of his brother farmers who are laboring in the vicinity (vùng lân cận).

Thu Phương

"Live in comfortable circumstances" nghĩa là gì?

Không phải ai cũng được sống một cách "bình thường" như này. Photo by Gustavo Fring from Pexels

"Live in comfortable/ easy/good/flourishing circumstances" nghĩa là sống thoải mái, sung túc.

Ví dụ
Mr. Nicodemus was a gentleman who lived down in Hampshire; he was a married man, and in very easy circumstances.

They live in comfortable circumstances, not as the factory workers (công nhân nhà máy) of old. They usually travel abroad, often own foreign property, and otherwise lead lives that had formerly been reserved for the middle class (tầng lớp trung lưu).

The old people who were not in comfortable circumstances had no homes at all worth mentioning, for, as soon as they got past work, they had either to go to the workhouse (trại tế bần) or find accommodation in the already overcrowded (quá tải) sottages of their children.

How can groups of people familiar with each other living in relatively comfortable circumstances envision (hình dung) a different future without building new understanding and empathy (đồng cảm)? This current pandemic (đại dịch) has been so devastating (hủy hoại) for people of color, it has even been referred to as the “Black Plague” by The New Yorker.

Thu Phương

"Pomp and circumstance" nghĩa là gì?

Học online, tốt nghiệp online nốt. Photo by Emily Ranquist from Pexels

"Pomp and circumstance" nghĩa là sự phô bày và những nghi thức long trọng, truyền thống.

Ví dụ
“Honestly, we practice every day in an empty grass area and pump in fake crowd noise for away games. But more often than not, you’re used to it,” Cousins said. “OTA practices don’t have a lot of pomp and circumstance to them.”

Eastlake High School homecoming queen and ASB student Madelyn Mones said seniors at her school are getting creative (sáng tạo) with virtual ceremonies (lễ ảo) but acknowledged the pomp and circumstance will not be the same.

The old Sleep Train Arena, which was converted (chuyển thành) into a field hospital this month, gave jobs to more than 100 people who would otherwise be without work during the pandemic. In all the pomp and circumstance, no one mentioned how much it would cost taxpayers (nộp thuế).

More than three million high school seniors will graduate this year but, thanks to COVID-19, they will likely miss the pomp and circumstance they were expecting. Many school systems have closed for the remainder (phần còn lại) of the year, meaning no proms (dạ hội) or graduation ceremonies (lễ tốt nghiệp).

Thu Phương

"Extenuating circumstances" nghĩa là gì?

Họp bàn chính sách. Photo by Hon. Ryan D. McCarthy

"Extenuating circumstances" nghĩa là tình tiết giảm nhẹ, xem xét giảm nhẹ hình phạt (không có lý do cụ thể), tình tiết giảm khinh hoặc trường hợp đặc biệt.

Ví dụ
Nunavut Health Minister George Hickes responds to reporters’ questions during a COVID-19 news conference. Public health officials and law enforcement (thực thi pháp luật) agencies can’t enter a home unless there is “consent (được cho phép) or extenuating circumstances,” he said on Wednesday, April 22.

Therefore, companies should consider being prepared to enact (ban hành) “extenuating circumstances” cancellation policies (“ECCPs”) to excuse (miễn) performance under existing consumer contracts (hợp đồng tiêu dùng). BCLP has prepared a list of five steps for drafting effective ECCPs to assist (hỗ trợ) your business.

The new policy (chính sách) allowed cancellations (hủy bỏ) at any time for reservations (đặt phòng) made on or before March 14, 2020, with check-in dates between March 14, 2020 and May 31, 2020 — originally the end date was April 15 — if customers can “attest (chứng thực) to the facts of and/or provide supporting documentation (tài liệu hỗ trợ) for your extenuating circumstance.”

Thu Phương

"Under certain circumstances" nghĩa là gì?

Đại dịch cho ta cơ hội suy ngẫm nhiều hơn. Photo by Thuraya Al Jiboury

"Under certain circumstances" nghĩa là trong hoàn cảnh/tình huống cụ thể.

Ví dụ
This is a test where under certain circumstances with doctor supervision (giám sát), a test can be mailed to a patient (bệnh nhân), and the patient can perform the self-swab (tự lấy mẫu) and then mail it back.

The death of thousands of our citizens, so far, has shown how vulnerable (dễ tổn thương) each of us can be under certain circumstances. We have learned how important it is for us to have a good relationship with our family and close friends.

Pension claimants (người yêu cầu lương hưu) can receive a boost (giúp đỡ) from the state if they're on particularly low incomes (thu nhập nhấp). Pension credits will top up payments up to certain amounts but these can be boosted once more under certain circumstances.

“I don’t foresee (thấy trước) that happening with the current circumstances. That power would generally be applied in the case of non-compliance (không tuân thủ) with a public health restriction (hạn chế) by an individual with a highly communicable disease (bệnh truyền nhiễm)," he said.

Thu Phương

"By force of circumstance" nghĩa là gì?

Thế giới thay đổi khi bạn thay đổi. Photo by thatanvar

"(By/due to...) force of circumstance" nghĩa là bởi hoàn cảnh bắt buộc (phải làm gì).

Ví dụ
Poland’s national payments provider (nhà cung cấp) has for almost three decades been pro-digitalization (số hóa) of all banking transactions (giao dịch). Now, due to force of circumstance, Poland could well become a very efficient (hiệu quả) and lucrative (sinh lợi) place for FX brokers (môi giới chứng khoán) to do business.

For President von der Leyen, the EU must show its “independence” (độc lập) and “cohesion” (gắn kết). This crisis (khủng hoảng) will, by force of circumstance, reduce Europe’s dependence (phụ thuộc), particularly in the medical field (lĩnh vực y tế), where many investments (đầu tư) in vaccine research (nghiên cứu) as well as the pooling (góp vốn) of European medical resources, are essential.

"I think that individuals, by force of circumstance, will put things into perspective (quan điểm), there will be another relationship to time, money and others. We're in a resistance phase (giai đoạn kháng chiến), we're going to be resilient (kiên cường), to learn lessons and then imagine a rebirth (tái sinh)," says V.Grégoire. A discourse shared by Li Edelkoort that the crisis will highlight what is no longer right in our society and will make us slow down (BoF Podcast).

Thu Phương

"Under normal circumstances" nghĩa là gì?

Giảm quá sâu không biết bao giờ phục hồi. Photo by Burak K from Pexels

"Under/in normal circumstances" nghĩa là trong hoàn cảnh/điều kiện bình thường.

Ví dụ
The verification process (quá trình xác minh) can take months to complete under normal circumstances.

High school sophomore (học sinh năm 2) Kagan Sims is in a similar position. On a calm Wednesday afternoon, he's out feeding (cho ăn) pregnant cows, when under normal circumstances, he'd be in English 11. He doesn't mind the work.

Under normal circumstances Rapid Action Packaging in Gaoth Dobhair in the Donegal Gaeltacht would be producing about 15 million pieces of packaging (bao bì) for food-to-go (đồ mang đi) a week but Covid 19 saw that business plummet (giảm mạnh) by 70%.

In a statement, the central bank said the Philippine economy, among the fastest growing in Asia under normal circumstances, is expected (dự kiến) to shrink (giảm) by 0.2% in 2020 before bouncing back to about 7.7% as policy (chính sách) support measures (biện pháp hỗ trợ) gain traction (sức hút).

Thu Phương

"Work like a mule" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Simon Matzinger on Pexels

"Work like a mule" = làm việc như con la -> nghĩa là làm việc cật lực trong khoảng thời gian dài, nhất là việc không công hoặc hầu hạ.

Ví dụ
While there’s no doubt that Chef Viviani hails from Italy with his Italian charm and thick accent (giọng), he’s the first to step up and say he’s the “worst Italian when it comes to life approach. I don’t take two-hour lunches and three-hour dinners. I work like a mule which is not very Italian. But! I do drink 10 espressos a day.”

“He’d work like a mule and wasn’t afraid of putting in hay on a hot summer day,” he said, “and helping out with cattle (gia súc) and doing the milking (vắt sữa), but I will tell you, we had our differences like brothers usually do, and sometimes we’d get into it.”

When one does a hard job, they should be paid, not work like a mule for a few scraps.

Ngọc Lân

"Sweeten the deal" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by: Savvas Stavrinos on Pexels

"Sweeten the deal" = làm ngọt giao kèo -> nghĩa là làm cho thỏa thuận mua bán hoặc giao dịch kinh doanh thêm hấp dẫn bằng cách thêm giá trị.

Ví dụ
Many breweries (nhà máy bia) sweeten the deal with free delivery within city limits. If you want to drive to the brewery, curbside (lề đường) pickups are available. Here’s a sampling of the brewhouse-to-doorstep options — and beers that might entice you.

If you like the price of the iPhone SE but don't want such a small screen, we've got a great deal for you: Verizon's Visible is selling an unlocked iPhone 8 Plus for $360 today, more than $200 off its usual price. And to sweeten the deal, it comes with a $100 prepaid (trả trước) Mastercard virtual gift card if you pay for two months of service.

To achieve progress and get the West—much less Ukraine—to look the other way when it comes to Russia’s annexation (sát nhập) of Crimea, Moscow would have to sweeten the deal significantly.

Ngọc Lân

"Male chauvinist pig" nghĩa là gì?

Phải thế chứ. Photo by: Samantha Sophia on Unsplash

"Male chauvinist pig" -> nghĩa là người tin rằng đàn ông vượt trội hơn phụ nữ.

Ví dụ
Now, are there male comedians of this calibre? There sure are. Why would a female comedian drop down to be a female chauvinist pig just to be on par (ngang tầm) with a male chauvinist pig? Any logic or reason for that? She or he has the right to do that? Seriously?

One tweeted: "Good for her for not standing for that male chauvinist pig behaviour. Regardless of how she talks about sex, doesn't mean she's a piece of meat. Another wrote: "Tom is a good example of how boys act big and mighty (hùng mạnh) in front of their mates and then act like the cat got their tongue when confronted (đe dọa)."

My politically precocious (sớm phát triển) younger sister had a different assignment — help with all the house chores so her older brother could study hard. One day she called me a male chauvinist pig and I asked her if that was a bad thing. She explained to me that there is no way men could do what they do were it not for women holding up the world.

Ngọc Lân

"In reduced circumstances" nghĩa là gì?

Photo by Levent Simsek from Pexels

"In reduced circumstances" nghĩa là trong hoàn cảnh khốn khó, túng thiếu, nghèo.

Ví dụ
Since employees bear (hứng chịu) most of the risk with this type of plan, the timing of market events like the current crisis (khủng hoảng) is crucial (quan trọng). Someone who was just about to retire will find themselves in “much reduced” circumstances from just a month ago, Frazer said.

An immigration (nhập cư) program for large numbers of high-asset individuals will seem unpalatable (khó chịu) to some. However, our government has long relied on immigration to fuel growth (kích thích tăng trưởng) and, given we find ourselves in reduced circumstances, it is difficult to see this pathway being resisted.

Dermot Goode, an expert (chuyên gia) with TotalHealthCover.ie, said there are ways for people to do so in the reduced circumstances. He said: “The latest Government initiative (kiến nghị) to pay up to 70% of salaries to eligible employees (nhân viên đủ điều kiện) is welcome, but thousands of households are still going to struggle financially (vật lộn tài chính) and as such, are looking at ways through which they can cut household expenditure."

Thu Phương

"Under the present circumstances" nghĩa là gì?

Không ai đảm bảo bệnh nhân COVID-19 sẽ khỏe mạnh 100% trở lại. Photo by Sharon McCutcheon on Unsplash

"Under/in the present circumstances" nghĩa là trong hoàn cảnh, tình huống hiện tại.

Ví dụ
Government’s lawyer informed the court (tòa án) that Sprinklr was ready to provide free service and the government accepted the offer due to the emergency situation (tình huống khẩn cấp). The lawyer noted that the data collection was necessary for the government due to the present circumstances.

As family with family members on the front lines (tuyến đầu) we're pretty close to the situation ourselves--or as close as possibly can be under present circumstances, and we read the frustration (thất vọng), psychological (tâm lý) and even physical toll (thiệt hại thể chất) this virus is taking on them being such close proximity (ở gần) to it, as well as many people across the nation and the world.

The PAC further stated that the OMA has never required public bodies to answer questions or otherwise interact (tương tác) with the public. Because the Board (Hội đồng) provided the email information in its agenda (chương trình nghị sự) along with a link for the public to view the meeting live, its actions complied (tuân thủ) with the OMA’s public comment requirements (yêu cầu) under the present circumstances.

Thu Phương